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Aluminum and Neurofibrillary Tangle Co-Localization in Familial Alzheimer’s Disease and Related Neurological Disorders

AluminumAuthors: Mold, Matthew Johna; * | O’Farrell, Adamb | Morris, Benjaminb | Exley, Christophera; *

Aluminum and Neurofibrillary Tangle Co-Localization in Familial Alzheimer’s Disease and Related Neurological Disorders



Protein misfolding disorders are frequently implicated in neurodegenerative conditions. Familial Alzheimer’s disease (fAD) is an early-onset and aggressive form of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), driven through autosomal dominant mutations in genes encoding the amyloid precursor protein and presenilins 1 and 2. The incidence of epilepsy is higher in AD patients with shared neuropathological hallmarks in both disease states, including the formation of neurofibrillary tangles. Similarly, in Parkinson’s disease, dementia onset is known to follow neurofibrillary tangle deposition.


Human exposure to aluminum has been linked to the etiology of neurodegenerative conditions and recent studies have demonstrated a high level of co-localization between amyloid-β and aluminum in fAD. In contrast, in a donor exposed to high levels of aluminum later developing late-onset epilepsy, aluminum and neurofibrillary tangles were found to deposit independently. Herein, we sought to identify aluminum and neurofibrillary tangles in fAD, Parkinson’s disease, and epilepsy donors.


Aluminum-specific fluorescence microscopy was used to identify aluminum in neurofibrillary tangles in human brain tissue.


We observed aluminum and neurofibrillary-like tangles in identical cells in all respective disease states. Co-deposition varied across brain regions, with aluminum and neurofibrillary tangles depositing in different cellular locations of the same cell.


Neurofibrillary tangle deposition closely follows cognitive-decline, and in epilepsy, tau phosphorylation associates with increased mossy fiber sprouting and seizure onset. Therefore, the presence of aluminum in these cells may exacerbate the accumulation and misfolding of amyloidogenic proteins including hyperphosphorylated tau in fAD, epilepsy, and Parkinson’s disease.



Oh that second step of adding adenine takes glutamine -- Well that is close to the word glutamate.

There are a lot of six rings, and even a five ring -- containing Nitrogen in the epilepsy drug Keppra.

There sure is a lot of rings containing nitrogen in adenine.
Aluminum ion messing with the making of adenine that goes on the riboflavin?

What can I do about that.

Oh I found an interesting article that says using the two flavonoids turmeric and quercertin together reduces polyps in the GI track.

N acetyl cysteine must not forget that , and down it all with lots of Brush creek Water -- enhanced with Dr. Crouse's recipe for silicade water-- or Fiji water.

Did you all know that N acetyl cysteine can really cause heart burn? So can turmeric too. I think drinking lots of water though makes this problem go away.


Rereading that dry piece of WIKI on what is fADH2.

Flavonoids is only a small part of FAD.
We have enzymes that take a piece of a flavonoid (that we cannot make and must eat and then it gets digested in the small intestines -- how much you want to bet, it takes some kind of fancy microbe that we don't have to get the right piece of flavonoid---- a riboflavin??????) to

But our bodies take the piece of riboflavin and with our enzyme puts on a phosphate group -- that is the electrons that when it comes off or breaks will supply ATP to power the proton pump in our mitochondria. Oh and it takes ATP to put that phosphate group on the riboflavin. I am finally getting it. Does it matter in the end -- Dang it.

Then the next step Two steps in making a flavonoid.riboflavin useful is to use more ATP to put on an anadenine nucleotide; on that riboflavin, and it is then ready to go power that electron transfer, proton pump -- mitochondria complex I and III and II and IV.

Where is this glutamate crap come in to it all. What Do I give, What do I spend my money on?
My family is gagging on all the vitamins, and pills?

Once you are vaccine injuried, you are just vaccine injuried.


Well I decided to work this sight to death. I can't stop thinking on it and looking up stuff

Flavonoids are involved in the aluminum toxicity in maize, where their production is induced in aluminum-exposed root.

Flavonoid as in what fAD is made of. As in what Coq10 is.
Which in reading the book Blue Zones -- the book that had that recipe of silicade water, the author in the beginning covered how silica helped protect against aluminum by forming some kind of barrier at the root of corn.

Looks like flavonoids is also part of the barrier. As in this science article I found says:
"The interaction of flavonoids with silica surfaces is of interest for separation and recovery of these natural products with potential anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties ",readily%20tune%20their%20surface%20functionality%20and%20pore%20structure.

Hmmm; Turmeric contains curcumin, which is a flavonoid

So, silica water and some kind of flavonoid?


Mossy fibers originate from many locations in the brain and spinal cord, and the terminal of each axon is anatomically recognizable as rosettes located on the ends of them.

Sounds about like something that could be a tangle as in Alzheimer and Parkinson


Mitochondria; Has four complexes. I and III are connected II and IV are connected in the electron transport chain. This is in-between the two membranes of the mitochondria. 100s, if not 1000s of mitochondria in cells. It depends on the type of cell.

Cyanide kills by blocking the II and IV complex in the mitochondria. As well as fooling the cell that it is iron, but it can't hold oxygen in the heme. Two different ways of killing you. .

CoQ10 is what they have my husband taking a lot of by mouth.
CoQ10 is made inside the mitochondria.
But you can take it by mouth, but they don't know if it reaches the mitochondria. They cannot measure, or won't measure CoQ10 by blood, taking it by mouth, does not mean it reaches the mitochondria. They don't know. Mitochondria makes it's own COQ10. They usually take a muscle biopsy to test the levels where it might matter?

CoQ10 is a flavonoid. As is quercin. Flavonoid is the fADH2 coenzyme that provides the two electrons to power the electron transfer pump.

Now how does the mitochondria make it's own CoQ10? Where can I find that? Do you all know how much money I have spent on CoQ10? I could have money when I retired.

So there is this:

1,) CoQ10 (Kaneka Q10™) affects the expression of hundreds of human genes.
2.) CoQ10‐inducible genes showed one group of NFκ B‐regulated genes, namely IL5, thrombin, vitronectin receptor and C‐reactive protein (CRP).


3.) The identified CoQ10‐inducible genes and pathways play an important role in inflammatory

Maybe CoQ10 has been diverted from transferring energy to turning on inflammatory response?

Now what is crap about epilepsy, tau phosphorylation associates with increased mossy fiber sprouting and seizure onset

Maybe CoQ10 has been diverted from transferring energy to turning on inflammatory response?

Now hat is crap about epilepsy, tau phosphorylation associates with increased mossy fiber sprouting and seizure onset?

Mossy, like a description of green moss growing on my baby's nerves?

Benedetta F Stilwell

Randomized thoughts here: You would think I got this stuff all lined out in my head. But I don't .
I have heard of fAB but I forgot. I had to look it up on wiki for something quick, after this study; wiki will probably have to censor that dried up piece of science based stuff wiki article too!

I knew it, that my Dad started dragging his feet right after that last flu shot. Parkinson has been going on for 17 long, hard years. Sure it can come with old age, but dang does it really? I am using the lift on him now for every thing. He can't turn over. He can't swallow his own spit.

Wiki said: FAD plays a major role as an enzyme cofactor along with flavin mononucleotide, another molecule originating from riboflavin.[8] Bacteria, fungi and plants can produce riboflavin, but other eukaryotes, such as humans, have lost the ability to make it.[9] Therefore, humans must obtain riboflavin, also known as vitamin B2, from dietary sources.[14] Riboflavin is generally ingested in the small intestine and then transported to cells via carrier proteins.[9] Riboflavin kinase (EC adds a phosphate group to riboflavin to produce flavin mononucleotide, and then FAD synthetase attaches an adenine nucleotide; both steps require ATP.[9] Bacteria generally have one bi-functional enzyme, but archaea and eukaryotes usually employ two distinct enzymes.[9] Current research indicates that distinct isoforms exist in the cytosol and mitochondria.[9] It seems that FAD is synthesized in both locations and potentially transported where needed.[

So, aluminum is messing up the ability of the mitochondria to take in riboflavin ?

You know that quercetin that I plan on giving if we get the covid 19 cause we can't get hydroxychloroquine from the doctor and if we do -- my friend who is a pharmacist says they won't fill it anyway --- that one -- that substitute quercetin is also one of the bioflavins.

Anyway I read some of the lengthy wiki and it looks like there is that glutamate happening again word again, again and again. .

Glutamate comes in in the reading of the epilepsy drug Keppra often enough. .
We are getting closer and closer to weaning my son off his seizure medicine with out a net. Maybe this spring all that happened was not from strep , but because he was taking some out dated med and he was having seizures? Maybe I am all wrong.

Some people needs killing. Not that I would have the heart to do the killing, it is just they need it by someone.

I need to find out how much silcade or what ever is in the water I am getting from the spring in Daniel Boone National Forest-- I only make one out of the three gallons containers I get. All of my family said they can taste the sulfur and I was to stop ruining that nice water. 1/3 and it still taste good and has the viscosity of FIJI water.

N-acetylcysteine. Giving it to my family every day -- some of them are getting it twice.
Of course Dad is 96 and I might have started all of this just too late in his life.
and I hope to God it makes a difference in the rest of the family though.

For Shelley

Yes, I’ll pass thanks on the aluminum adjuvant vaccines, of which there are several


Vitamin K… This rings a bell! The injection is actually 'Phytonadione' ( where as phylloquinone is the natural form of K1), then has to be converted in the liver (somewhat inefficiently) to vitamin K1 (menaquinone (MK)-4). From there, ‘some’ of it has to get converted (inefficiently) into vitamin K2 (Menaquinone- (MK)-7) in order that it can prevent bleeding. A good natural diet should contain so much K that the body can normally afford not to be efficient at converting what it needs, but if the liver has a deficiency of the right liver enzymes then this may cause problems for the neonate.

Most of the phytonadione form is lost from the body before conversion, even then it has a short half life so not all of it has time to get converted. Hence the habit of injecting a whole one milligram.

Menaquinone- (MK)-7 dose not cause anaphylaxis like synthetic Phytonadione . It is more bioavailable. It is also absorbed sub-lingually. So why not give it to babies in the form that I take it, as a oral spray?

Maybe I’m missing something (perhaps a wicked pharma sense of humour)?

Some References:
Recent trends in the metabolism and cell biology of vitamin K with special reference to vitamin K cycling and MK-4 biosynthesis
Comparison of menaquinone-4 and menaquinone-7 bioavailability in healthy women

A brand of K2 oral sub-lingual spray which states it is suitable for children aged 13 years and above (and if one has witnesses what kids do with a spay can of paint I am not surprised by the age limit suggested).

Shelley Tzorfas

One of the major components of Vaccines is large amounts of Aluminum. Your newborns are shot with around 400 mcg within hours of birth in the Hepatitis B shot and Vitamin K. The vitamin K shot has NO Vitamin in it but comes with a Black Box Warning. The Hepatitis B shot was intended for people who had Unprotected Sex or IV Drug users sharing needles-Not Newborns! In all of my readings I have not seen one article where a person contracted Alzheimer's disease without large amounts of Aluminum in the brain. Most of the deceased studied so far are old enough to have not received such huge amounts of aluminum as the children born in 1991 did. 1991 is the year vaccine maker's decided ,-Heck we can shoot newborns because no one in the US can sue us anymore. Regan signed a law in 1986 giving us ZERO liability. They then decided to shoot all children 72 times and are adding more and more shots to the schedule for profit. The motive is Profit NOT Health.

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