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Mark Blaxill: My Hanging Offense

The-hanging-treeBy Mark Blaxill

September 5, 2017

On May 8, The Boston Herald published an editorial calling for my execution. They didn’t know much about me, but had heard about an event in Minneapolis at which I spoke. I learned subsequently the piece was written by Rachelle Cohen, editor of the newspaper’s editorial page. Her brief essay didn’t refer to me by name, but cited a Washington Post article from May 5th that did, describing me as “a Boston businessman” and “anti-vaccine activist.”

Cohen wrote that during "this latest outbreak [of measles in Minnesota], anti-vaccine groups have fanned the flames, making it hard for public health officials and doctors to be heard above the noise. These are the facts: Vaccines don’t cause autism. Measles can kill. And lying to vulnerable people about the health and safety of their children ought to be a hanging offense." [emphasis added]

Four months later, the much-hyped Minnesota measles outbreak has passed with little notice, but there are important lessons to be learned from the events surrounding it. What really happened? Why all the fuss? What are the salient facts about measles, vaccines and autism? What was my role in the process? Most importantly, what does this episode teach us about the state of public health policy and the ongoing concern for vaccine safety and parental rights. To explore those questions, let’s first take a look at the outbreak itself.

The Minnesota measles outbreak of 2017

On April 13, the first news report of three measles cases among “toddlers” in Minneapolis was published (see HERE). The next day, confirming five more cases, the Minnesota Department of Health (MDH) issued a press release with additional information. Of the then eight confirmed cases, all were unvaccinated children living in Hennepin County. Seven of the eight were “Somali Minnesotans.” Six of these children were hospitalized.

Over the next three months, as the count of confirmed cases rose to 79, the initial pattern continued. The outbreak was largely confined to children (73 were under 10 years old) who were Somali-American (64 of 79) residents of Hennepin County (70 of 79), most of whom (71 of 79) were unvaccinated. The case count rose quickly to reach 73 by the end of May and then leveled off sharply. Six additional cases were confirmed, until the last case report on July 13.


By late April, MDH was posting daily case updates on their web-site (see HERE). This was both a response to and a stimulus for widespread media coverage, first in local news outlets and then nationally. At the outset, these were brief, factual reports, but it didn’t take long for the MDH to start pointing fingers. On May 5, The Washington Post published the article that caught Rachelle Cohen’s attention, “Anti-vaccine activists spark a state’s worst measles outbreak in decades.” (see HERE). Health officials complained specifically that the Vaccine Safety Council of Minnesota (VSCM) “in the middle of their crisis” was informing Somali-Americans that they had the right according to Minnesota law to opt out of vaccination based on conscientiously held beliefs. Reminding parents of their rights was a message these officials felt was “exactly the opposite of what clinicians and public health officials are urging, which is to get vaccinated as soon as possible.”

On August 25, the MDH officially “declared an end to the measles outbreak of spring and summer 2017.” Their news release, which was not widely reported, described why they waited so long to announce something that had been clear for weeks.

“The outbreak that eventually sickened 79 people, mostly children under 10 years of age, began when the first case was identified April 11. The last case was identified on July 13. Under standard public health practice, the outbreak can be declared over if there are no new cases identified for 42 days. The incubation period for measles is 21 days, meaning that’s how long it can take for someone who has been infected with measles to show symptoms. Health officials wait two incubation periods (42 days) out of an abundance of caution.”

Despite the often-hysterical treatment the outbreak received from the press, it was a relatively modest event. Although measles no longer circulates freely in the U.S., minor outbreaks like this one remain common. Since 2000, measles cases in the U.S. have averaged close to 130 per year, typically sparked by infected travelers entering the country. When larger outbreaks take place, they often occur in communities that have low vaccination rates: an Amish community in Ohio saw nearly 400 cases in 2014; the year before saw two smaller outbreaks, one in an orthodox Jewish community in New York, another in a church community from Texas.  Most notorious among recent outbreaks is the one that began in Disneyland in December 2014. By the time it subsided in mid-February, the Disneyland outbreak totaled 147 cases.

By comparison, the Minnesota measles outbreak was a small one. It also appears to have had no lasting health consequences for those infected. According to MDH, 22 of the 79 cases were hospitalized, at first blush a large number. But according to Patti Carroll, a board member of the VSCM, none of these cases were ever in intensive care and all recovered with no known lasting health effects. The hospitalization rate appears to reflect an aggressive response to the initial problem since 6 of the first 8 confirmed cases were taken to the hospital. Of the subsequent 71 cases, MDH data suggest only 16 were hospitalized.

The Vaccine Safety Council of Minnesota event

As MDH began targeting the Somali-American community in mid-April, concerns arose among those families who were targeted. Parents who had made the decision to avoid or delay administering the Merck measles-mumps-rubella vaccine (MMR II) to their children reported intense pressure to vaccinate these children against their wishes. According to the VSCM, “the concerns we hear are based on the bullying and overreach of MDH and doctors lying to parents that they have no options or choice on medical decisions for their children.” 

Eager to provide a counterbalance to this pressure, a group of Somali parents reached out to the VSCM and asked them to hold an information session for the Somali community. The VSCM agreed to arrange the session, which was scheduled for April 30th. Originally planned for a community center in Minneapolis, the venue had to be changed after the MDH prevailed on the center to renege on their agreement to host it.

On Sunday April 30th, I was the main speaker at the relocated VSCM briefing session. Although the last-minute change of venue had reduced the audience somewhat, there was a large turnout of Somali families. A number of media outlets attended as well. The room was smaller than the original community center, but it was fairly full.

At the outset of my talk, I asked the audience for a show of hands. First, I asked how many knew a child with a measles infection? Almost no one raised their hands, excepting three white doctors sitting together in the center of the room. They were clearly there to represent the public health side of the issue. Next, I asked how many knew a child with autism? Virtually the entire room raised their hands.

The autism issue was the elephant in the room. The Minnesota Somali community, America’s largest, has been devastated by autism. A 2013 study conducted by University of Minnesota researchers, following the method of the CDC’s Autism and Developmental Disabilities (ADDM) network, analyzed autism prevalence in Minneapolis children, including residents of Somali descent. The study reported an overall prevalence rate in Minneapolis children of 1 in 48, a rate nearly as high as the record-setting rate of 1 in 46 reported by the New Jersey ADDM site. But the rate in the Somali community was 1 in 32, higher than any rate ever reported in America. Parents in the audience told me they believe that rate is an underestimate.


So many parents of Somali children with autism have seen a regression following the MMR II vaccine that they call it “the autism shot.” And the concern over autism has led to lower vaccination rates among Somali Minnesotans, making them—like the Amish in Ohio and the orthodox Jews in New York-- more susceptible to measles outbreaks. The chart below from the CDC’s Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Review illustrates the trend: the MDH would call it a “crisis”; others might call it a rational response from informed parents to an urgent childhood health problem.


With the elephant—not to mention three hostile doctors—firmly placed in the room, I proceeded with my talk. I broke the presentation into five sections.

  1. An overview of American vaccine policy. I contrasted the positions of government officials and “anti-vaxxers” and stated quite clearly that I was not anti-vaccine, but rather a critic of the dramatic expansion in the CDC’s recommended childhood vaccine schedule. I argued that vaccines have both risks and benefits and that public health officials routinely overemphasize the risks of infectious disease while underplaying the risks of vaccine injury.
  2. Measles risk. I showed CDC data on measles morbidity and mortality in America since 1900. I showed that the risk of death from a measles infection had plummeted throughout the 20th century, but took pains to point out that risk from measles infection remained and that parents should understand that. I shared CDC data on 11 reported deaths from measles since 2000, two of them “verified.” Cancer patients and the immune-suppressed carry the greatest risk.
  3. Autism in Minnesota. I argued, as I have for years, that the dramatic rise in autism rates is real and an urgent public health crisis. I showed the audience how the Somali autism rate dwarfs rates measured in other parts of the country.
  4. Research fraud from the CDC in MMR-autism study. I shared publicly released working documents from CDC scientist William Thompson showing that the CDC had found an increased risk of autism in African American children who had received the MMR vaccine early. Their concealment of those findings is described extensively in the movie Vaxxed and provides key evidence casting doubt on the oft-repeated claim that there is no link between vaccines like the MMR II and autism.
  5. Exemption rights. Finally, I made the point to the Somali parents that it was their right and responsibility to weigh all the information they received and make the decision they felt was best for their child. If, based on their “conscientiously held belief”, they decided to forego or delay vaccination, then they had that right under Minnesota state law.

So that was my hanging offense. Although some journalists reported fairly on the briefing session, others misrepresented what they heard. Emily Sohn, an NPR reporter who attended the meeting also contributed to The Washington Post article that described me as an “anti-vaccine activist.” Soon thereafter, Rachelle Cohen was literally calling for a lynch mob.

Lessons from the outbreak

When your hometown newspaper calls for your execution, it’s an occasion for self-reflection. Was Rachelle Cohen correct? Was I “fanning the flames” of dangerous “anti-vaxxer” sentiment and putting children’s lives at risk? Or was I acting heroically and saving the poor Somali families from the evil clutches of the CDC and their minions at MDH?

Needless to say, neither of these extremes bear much resemblance to the reality I witnessed. While I’m both bemused and a little alarmed by the media backlash, I can honestly say that I’ve never had a moment of regret about the event. Quite the contrary, I believe that when important rights are under attack it’s important to stand up and defend them. So I was proud to stand with my VSCM friends and their colleagues in the Minnesota Somali community. I hope the information I shared that night was useful to some of them.

But my overwhelming impression is that the hysterical government and media reaction--one that Rachelle Cohen carried to an alarming extreme--missed three critical points. First and most importantly, it was hugely disrespectful to the Somali families involved. The racist undertone to the official response was hard to ignore. Instead of the educated, informed and caring Somali parents I met that night, the press would have you believe they were ignorant and uncritical victims easily swayed by charlatans and frauds, including me. Far from me educating them, however, I may have learned more from the attendees at the event than they learned from me. Several of the Somali women I spoke to knew a great deal more about the local prevalence study I cited than I did. I took notes!

Second, what the media response showed most clearly is how complex phenomena like an isolated measles outbreak is made meaningful only to the degree it can be twisted to fit some other pre-existing narrative. As Chicago politician Rahm Emmanuel famously said, “never let a serious crisis go to waste.” And as public health officials have learned with the Disneyland outbreak, measles outbreaks provide a golden opportunity to advance their policy agenda of mandatory vaccination. Friendly partners in the media are only too happy to oblige. As the friendly media has also learned, the threat of a plague makes great television.

So, the VSCM event became less about the facts and a few dozen Somali children who had to stay home for a few days. Instead, it was quickly turned to familiar themes and characters. The Washington Post went on at length about a visit Andrew Wakefield made to Minneapolis many years ago, pinning blame on him for the decline in vaccine compliance instead of valid concerns about vaccine injury that Somali families have witnessed firsthand.

But in our increasingly polarized media environment, a serious crisis can be twisted to fit multiple narratives. On another edge of the political spectrum, Michael Patrick Leahy of Breitbart (see HERE) sought to turn the outbreak into a story about the dangers of too many (and disease-carrying), illegal, Islamic immigrants. But there’s a problem with that narrative too. Somali Minnesotans are legal immigrants, invited by the State of Minnesota as part of a deliberate policy. Whether or not one agrees with that policy or the extent of immigration involved, there is no denying that the Somalis I encountered were affluent, educated and well connected to Minnesota society. Like so many of us in the autism parent community, they are simply worried about the health of their children and their right to make their own decisions about vaccination.

Third, the real public health issues end up subordinated by the official narrative on vaccines and autism, which reared its ugly head again here: Wakefield! Anti-vaxxers! Vaccines never ever cause autism! Measles!  Crazy parents are dangerous!

But there’s an odd issue when it comes to measles outbreaks, which have been exploited while other more worrisome public health issues are ignored. Measles is the news, but the most serious issues of infectious disease in “vaccine-preventable diseases” aren’t measles. In the last couple of years, a serious mumps epidemic has been sweeping through the country, including Minnesota, with over 3000 cases reported so far this year.  While mumps is usually harmless in children, a mumps infection is far more serious in adults (according to CDC statistics, between 2000 and 2014, the number of “reported” deaths from mumps were exactly same as measles). Why is there no publicity on the very real dangers of our current mumps epidemic? Because the vast majority of mumps infections occur in the vaccinated. The mumps epidemic is evidence of a widespread failure of the mumps component of the MMR II vaccine (a whistleblower lawsuit filed by two Merck scientists argues that Merck covered up evidence of this problem  (see HERE )). Like the mumps epidemic, there’s little mention of an even more pervasive problem, the widespread incidence of whooping cough, which has shown up in hundreds of thousands of reported cases since 2000. But again, like the mumps problem, whooping cough (aka pertussis) overwhelmingly infects those who have already been vaccinated.

Since these are crises that can’t be put to use, we hear little about them. And the Minnesota measles outbreak received widespread attention because public health officials want to abolish vaccine exemption rights. They have chosen to use recent measles outbreaks to go on the political offensive and attack groups like VSCM that defend exemption rights. Which led Rachelle Cohen, perhaps unwittingly, to me.

It’s possible, however, that this time these forced narratives backfired, or at least failed to have their desired effect. Did the prospect of a made-for-Breitbart narrative (unclean, disease-carrying, Islamic immigrants!) neutralize the pharma-friendly narrative we saw on outlets like The Washington Post and NPR? Perhaps so, since unlike the Disneyland outbreak, the Minnesota measles outbreak hasn’t yet spawned a new attack on exemption rights. At least not in Minnesota, where the VSCM stands guard. Will that change soon? Only time will tell.

In the meantime, I still walk the streets of Boston safely. No lynch mobs have been sighted. And if Rachelle Cohen or her colleagues ever want to sit down and have a civil conversation about public policy, I’d welcome the opportunity. Denial

Mark Blaxill is Editor-At-Large for Age of Autism. His new book, co-authored with Dan Olmsted, is called Denial How Refusing to Face the Facts about Our Autism Epidemic Hurts Children, Families, and Our Future and is available now.


Tom Petrie

Great article and very well written. To Benedetta, you might find of interest, my article on the SIDS topic: http://tompetrie.net/SIDS.


To Bob Moffit: Some Somalis have returned to Africa — despite comments overheard from MDH employees that "they should be grateful" to live in Minnesota.

Yeah, right. Leave your country of birth, your relatives, everything you know just so you can freeze your rear off six months a year, have gape-mouthed white folk stare at you (or have some woman smack you with a beer mug because for a moment you didn't speak English), and try to find nutritious food in stores full of processed dreck. You work hard and assimilate but your children get autism, then the doctors don't know how to treat it, and you're left with a lifetime of chaos and despair that’s bearable thanks to parent/child love, community support, and a religion your new country often views with suspicion.

A few years ago I had just left a nearly useless Minnesota gastroenterology clinic to brush snow off my vehicle from a daylong blizzard. A Somali dad asked to borrow my super-deluxe snow brush; I told him to keep it. One timely and perfectly-designed tool to take on another David-and-Goliath struggle... and a rare moment of grace.

bob moffit

@ nhokkanen

"Minnesota's Somali immigrants say their language has no word for autism."

As I understand it .. you are right there is "no word for autism" in Somalia .. so recent Somali immigrants in Minnesota have taken to calling autism .. the "American disease".

If this is so .. rampant autism in their new communities .. would be a very high price to pay for those desperately seeking a better life in the USA.


I'm wondering if there's something different in the way Somali immigrants are vaccinated. I read something some years ago about re-vaccination in the US.

I know that this is sometimes recommended for children adopted from foreign countries.


Very informative,great article. "Sufferin souchatash,a hinging offense !"
The emotionally de-sensitised terminology that is getting chucked around is truly shocking .
Do people not even realise that type of emotionally de-sensitised mindset will always lead on to more very serious emotional ,psychological and eventually physical abuse. ie "Best Interests value judgements getting made about whole groups of peoples " based on nothing more than Health and Social Care Professionals ," personal opinions" , creating current guideline spasticity ,that is becoming increasingly paralysied by its own criteria limits and boundaries . Especially with vaccine risk assessments that could not safely sit their own silly wee selfies the right way round on their own politically very shoogly lavatory pan . [sorry about the pun]
Professional Codes of Conduct are not a purchasable commodoty ! .

Laura Hayes


Thank you for speaking with the Somali families in MN, and for this great article.

With regard to mainstream media...so much blood on their hands...so much.

Army brat

Please send this to the Washington post and ask as they have called for your lynching for a chance to respond in print. Let us know what happens.


Vaccine injuries that cause a baby to die and anyone putting down parents for saying so - should be the hanging offense. But I will settle for dressing them all in orange


david m burd
Don't be silly, SIDs death was caused by laying babies on their backs, and if they spit up or did not swallow right, they choked to death. So, compassionate (LOL) pediatricians told us to lay them on their stomachs.

SIDS deaths were then reported to come down fast. All was fixed and better. .

Then I ran into some new mothers whose compassionate (LOL) pediatricians said that putting babies on their bellies cause them to get their face down into the mattress or what ever and cut off the air.

They started telling Mothers to lay babies on their sides.

SIDS Deaths are down. Right?


To Carol: Minnesota's Somali immigrants say their language has no word for autism. Parents know best how their children have regressed following vaccination. To ignore their empirical evidence constitutes medical and ethical disaster.

I’ve lived in Minnesota 30 years; many white residents unconsciously cling to provincial notions of the “white man’s burden.” Cultural differences of non-European origin are held up by media as quaint entertainment. Beneath whites’ illusion of separate-but-equal coexistence lies false assumptions about Somalis as ignorant subordinates obligated to show gratitude for public aid — instead of showing them the unqualified respect and understanding born of first-hand conversations as true equals.

This year the "Minnesota Nice" ladies at our state Department of Health dramatically ramped up their leveraging of Somalis’ health issues for the agency's benefit. They chose to put targets on the backs of Somali autism families and health freedom advocates.

One July article praised how MDH was able to “harness” Somali imams to pressure parents into vaccinating with MMR using fear. One of the most obvious “friendly media” operatives for the CDC has been the overtly biased MPR:
"One of the imams, and I'm paraphrasing, he said, 'If you don't immunize, it's like killing the Muslim children.' I think that's such strong messaging," Ashkar said.

Many journalists who’ve lost full time jobs become freelancers; to save time and curry favor, some blur the professional lines between reporting and PR. Susan Perry of MinnPost.com, a persistent MMR defender, recently admitted to a professional conflict of interest: doing promotional writing for Children’s Hospital, then later giving CH’s “Infection Preventionist” Patsy Stinchfield an online podium in a hit piece disguised as reporting.

The top-down PR structure CDC uses ensures wide distribution and restricts blowback from damaged consumers and the few remaining journalists of integrity. What would a FOIA request reveal regarding correspondence between MDH, CDC and major media?

Angus Files

No worries Mark the new Sheriff is in town and he ain`t out to lynch the good guys like you, walk tall.

Pharma for Prison


David Weiner

"Health officials wait two incubation periods (42 days) out of an abundance of caution."

The words "health officials" and "abundance of caution" should never be used in the same sentence, and probably not even in the same book, when it comes to the vaccine promoters.

david m burd

@ go Trump,

Thanks for your SIDS question; back in the mid--1990s the Medical Powers-that-be conjured up that about 1/2 of SIDS deaths could be ascribed to parents co-sleeping with their infants, etc,. and instantly cut SIDS deaths about in half.

Still, today, what used to be SIDS deaths (most certainly all caused by the onslaught of vaccines' toxicities at age 2 months, 4 months, 6 months) are now ascribed to be either accidental suffocation and/or unknown (BUT NOT SIDS!)

Of course, 27 doses of injected vaccines by 6 months COULD NEVER BE IMPLICATED! Just a COINCIDENCE - .

Zoey O'Toole

Bob, I noted immediately that Ms. Cohen's article called for her own lynching. At least 83 cases of autism WERE caused by vaccines. (http://digitalcommons.pace.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1681&context=pelr) If not, then autism would be as prevalent in the population whose brains were injured by vaccines as it is in the general population; it's not. Researchers found that a full 40% of children who had been compensated for vaccine-induced brain injuries had autism. And those researchers were only able to find a small percentage of the compensated families, implying that altogether it is likely that approximately 530 cases of autism have compensated as vaccine injuries. http://thinkingmomsrevolution.com/autism-war-fiction-true-crime/

go Trump

Well written Mark.

In the past 50 years what other large “Anti-groups” have their been ???

Lets see, anti-smoking, anti-Thalidomide, anti-lead in gasoline, anti-Vioxx, anti-hormone replacement, anti-lawn darts…

They have ALL BEEN PROVEN TO BE CORRECT correct in their thinking.

We need to team up more closely with the SIDS groups and track that daily disaster and try to locate an unvaccinated SIDS baby.

David Weiner

"Never let a crisis go to waste"

True, though in the case of measles, first the CDC/Media had to actually fabricate a crisis. With only a relatively small number of people who got sick, there really was no legitimate crisis to begin with.

It is only our fake news which is conjuring up crises where they do not exist and ignoring or downplaying actual crises when they do exist.


You got just one thing wrong. You actually ARE a hero saving many families from BigPharma's evil clutches! And I thank you profusely for all you do!

cia parker

Thank you for what you are doing, Mark! This is a propaganda war, they really don't give a damn about children's health, how ultimately harmless and actively beneficial getting natural measles is, or about what autism and other vaccine injury are doing to our families and our society. They're just grubby little foot soldiers with lies they use as bullets. I hope we live to see them held accountable for the suffering they have caused, their bank accounts depleted to distribute as compensation and damages to those taken in and damaged by their lies, and the most egregious liars in prison for life.

Jeannette Bishop

Thank you for putting together this perspective.

On the hospitalizations for measles, what treatments are considered "standard of care?" Does anyone know? Do they still supplement a bioavailable(?correct word?) form of vitamin A for instance? Or was that an approach not widely adopted in hospitals anyway? Is the hospital actually the healthiest setting to recuperate from measles? I guess I've been worrying that there has been some loss of treatment knowledge and skill from the pre-vaccine era, or assumptions formed that things should be applied that actually don't help, maybe even harm. I know there has been a break in such training for many of us parents.

Some physicians and parents have noted developmental leaps in their children following measles. I also heard somewhere in the vaxxed (I think) tour videos, Dr. Humphries mention that some adults who've suffered through measles (as adults) have reported to her that they've experienced improvements in their overall health from what it was before they had the measles.

I wonder if health officials (or any person truly interested in the truth about how to optimize health) would be interested in surveying for instances of actual improved health and development from these outbreaks and if observable, maybe consider whether a public shift towards healthy infectious disease management rather than the elusive but sounds-really-good-on-the-surface annihilation mostly attributed to vaccination of disease outbreaks would truly be better for public health? If not (interested in honestly looking, that is), I'm thinking we should change what outcomes "public health" salaries are based upon (of course that wouldn't eliminate potential for corrupting conflicts of interest).

Anna Quandt

Thank you Mark. You should be the role model for everyone in public health. They should inform the public, not bully and try to scare them to death.

I know I'm getting old but before my generation dies out I wish people would remember that we did not fear measles when I was a child. Parents kept their children home and darkened the room with curtains. My mother read to us: Bambi (skipping the chapter where Bambi's mother died) and Hans Brinker and the Silver Skates. It was a long time ago.


I assume the official explanation for the higher rate of autism in Somali Americans is some flavor of "bad genes." What do Somalis themselves think?

Becky Estepp

Is there anyway to find out if any of the Somali parents who opted out of the MMR vaccine and/or other vaccines for their children, if any of those children went on to develop autism?

Harvard MD

Thank you for your first-hand account of the Somali measles outbreak.

Thank you also for your book which I finished a few days ago and left a well-deserved 5 star review on Amazon.

Instead of mandatory vaccines, what is needed is mandatory reading for physicians on the historical account of vaccines and autism and the epidemiology of childhood chronic health conditions.

david m burd

Mark, Your presentation in Minnesota was spectacular, and of course "blacked out" by all the media, except for idiot columnists attacking you.

There's a time-honored proverb I'm told originated in Spain (to sprinkle in some humor if I may): "When telling the truth, it is wise to already have one foot in the stirrups."

(Of course we allies of Age of Autism ignore such cautionary advice!)

bob moffit

Rachel Cohen .. Boston Globe:

"These are the facts: Vaccines don’t cause autism. Measles can kill. And lying to vulnerable people about the health and safety of their children ought to be a hanging offense."

If Ms Cohen's standard for public lynching is .. "lying to vulnerable people about the health and safety of their children" .. Ms Cohen's opening "fact .. vaccines don't cause autism" .. appears to meet her own standard.

I don't think Chicago's Rahm Emmanuel deserves any credit for his comment .. "never let a serious crisis go to waste" .. as that has ALWAYS been practiced .. especially in politics .. considering ..as I understand it .. in ancient China .. the written symbol of "crisis" is the very same as it is for "opportunity".

In any event .. Mark .. the call for your public lynching places you among some very distinguished historical figures .. who actually were lynched .. for having the COURAGE TO SPEAK TRUTH TO POWER.

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