BRAIN ON FIRE - From Autoimmunity To Madness, 2012
The science keeps evolving and it's good to keep up with it as some is connected to our loved ones :
Clinical features in those under 18 years of age were found to differ. In 48% of cases children had a prodrome of fever, headache, upper respiratory tract symptoms or diarrhoea and vomiting. Almost all patients presented to the physician with mood or behavioural changes such as temper tantrums , hyperactivity or irritability as opposed to frank psychosis making the diagnosis of an underlying pathological cause less obvious . In addition it is thought that movement disorders and seizures; usually partial motor or complex seizures; occur earlier in the disease process, however, it may be that this is just the first recognisable symptom [1,6].
Autonomic instability (tachycardia, hyperthermia and hypertension) occurred in 86% of those under 18 years of age and although many were affected it appeared to be less severe than in adults.
This report is yet another significant finding:
Anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate (Anti-NMDA) receptor encephalitis is an acute autoimmune neurological disorder. The cause of this disease is often unknown, and previous studies revealed that it might be caused by a virus, vaccine or tumor. It occurs more often in females than in males. Several cases were reported to be related to vaccination such as the H1N1 vaccine and tetanus/diphtheria/pertussis and polio vaccines. In this study, we reported an anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis case that may be caused by Japanese encephalitis vaccination....Anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate (Anti-NMDA) receptor encephalitis is an acute disorder that presents a multistage illness progressing from initial psychiatric symptoms to memory disturbances, seizures, dyskinesia and catatonia. In the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) or serum of patients one can find antibodies produced by the body’s own immune system attacking N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. Although this disorder may be induced by a virus, vaccination or tumor, the cause is often unknown. The treatments include first-line immunotherapies: steroids, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) or plasmapheresis (or plasma exchange); and second-line immunotherapy such as rituximab or cyclophosphamide. It occurs more often in females than in males. A proportion of female patients have also been detected with ovarian tumors.
...Several anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis cases have been reported to be related to vaccination. Although vaccination is the most effective method of preventing infectious diseases, previous studies claim that vaccines cause chronic diseases such as asthma, multiple sclerosis, chronic arthritis, and diabetes . Vaccination with live-attenuated polio vaccine occasionally results in the emergence of vaccine-derived polioviruses that may cause poliomyelitis . The immunization induced by vaccination might cause autoimmune diseases because some microbial proteins are similar to human proteins . As a result, the immune system might respond to self-proteins and cause damage to these proteins [7,8]....We report about a two-year-old girl who was diagnosed with anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis. She developed a low-grade fever (38.2 °C) on Day 14 after receiving a second dose of JE vaccination.
Although there is few anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis cases reported to be related to vaccination, there may be more cases caused by vaccination that have not been reported.......
In other research, this paper mentions vaccinations --- tetanus, diphtheria, pertussis, poliomyelitis, and H1N1 influenza --- as causative to Anti-NMDA Receptor Encephalitis. Cases are also noted by VAERS for Gardasil and Cervarix . Other papers are also including vaccines - Pandemrix for H1N1, HPV and Men C booster; 1 month, 4 weeks and 1 week prior to onset, respectively) .
A factor that is important to remember: non-specific systemic infections or vaccinations can act as an adjuvant of the autoimmune response.
Measles vaccination or by name, the MMR vaccine, has not been mentioned but on looking at research, I am wondering about that.
5 patients gave the history of vaccination for measles. Seizures were present in 14 patients whereas cognition was affected in 28 patients. Myoclonus (slow and fast) was seen in all 33 patients. Speech abnormalities were detected in 12 patients. 24 patients had psychosis, and 4 had hyponatremia. Anti VGKC antibodies were seen in 2 patients, anti-NMDA and anti-TPO antibodies were seen in 1 patient each....Autoimmune encephalitis is a group of treatable noninfective encephalitic disorders with great clinical implications....Measles antibody in CSF can become elevated in situ ations other than SSPE probably due to damage to blood-brain barrier. In conditions like multiple sclerosis, it is consistently reported which could indicate it can be a nonspecific epiphenomena in autoimmune disorders. Intrathecal synthesis may occur postulating an active immunogenic role for the measles virus in autoimmune disorders.
Anti-NMDA Receptor is a devastating disorder and it is on the increase - Globally, its incidence has increased by 7.7% between 2005 and 2015 . While encephalitis is most often suspected to be viral in aetiology, extensive investigation frequently fails to identify an infectious pathogen.
There seems to be an increase in children: Anti-NMDAR encephalitis may be the most common cause of autoimmune encephalitis in children (Cohen & Wong-Kisiel, 2014; Titulaer et al., 2013). It is more prevalent in females (Lin et al., 2014, Tachibana et al., 2010). Approximately 40% of all reported anti-NMDAR encephalitis cases occur in children (Florance et al., 2009; Goldberg, Titulaer, de Blank, Sievert, & Ryan, 2014). The youngest reported child to be diagnosed with anti-NMDAR encephalitis was 8 months old (Armangue et al., 2013
There are connections that need to be examined:
This case series demonstrates a novel clinical phenotype of gait disturbance as an initial symptom in children <3 years old with anti–N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (anti-NMDAR) encephalitis.
Gait disturbance registered after MMR vaccination seems to be more frequent than hitherto reported.
Is it controversial? You bet is is but the importance of preventing this disorder as well as helping those stricken is imperative. Is there a scientific connection to VACCINES? Yes, there is. Let's include the FLU vaccine, too:
This case describes antibody-verified anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate (anti-NMDA) receptor encephalitis in a previously healthy 7 month-old infant female presenting within 48 hours of receiving an influenza booster vaccination during her first influenza season.... This case describes the youngest patient with anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis yet reported, and the first to suggest correlation with recent influenza vaccination. As higher likelihood of neurologic recovery is associated with early initiation of treatment, providers are encouraged to consider autoimmune neurologic disorders like anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis when mental status abnormalities and developmental regression persist, regardless of patient age.
Many children ultimately diagnosed with anti-NMDA autoimmune encephalitis were first determined to be autistic. How many children originally first diagnosed with autism weren't able to find their autoimmune diagnosis? p 224, Brain on Fire: My Month of Madness