Conversion Disorder in Leroy NY?
Call In: National Vaccine Advisory Committee Meetings

Tics and Toxins: Pesticide Ban, Rainfall Could Point to Poisonous Fungus as Factor in Student Outbreaks

Salem witch

By Dan Olmsted and Mark Blaxill

LEROY, N.Y., February 6  -- Last year, during the wettest spring ever recorded across large swaths of New York state, a little-noticed law took effect: As of May 18, pesticide use was banned from the grounds of every school in the state. That same month, a girl at the junior/senior high school here, and another at a high school near Albany, developed a mysterious tic disorder. The total number of cases in LeRoy has now risen to 15.

This convergence adds a new possibility to the list of suspects already being scrutinized in this picturesque Western New York village of 4,400, suspects that range from a 1970 train derailment that spewed toxic chemicals, to an autoimmune disorder called PANDAS, to leaks from gas wells on school grounds that may or may not have employed “fracking." The new possibility: Poisoning from a fungus that grows on a grass commonly planted on school grounds.

The fungus is called ergot, and it can grow when ryegrass – used on most athletic playing fields – sprouts a floweret that gets infected. That most often happens during wet spring months and on low-lying or marshy areas. (This photo was taken on school grounds last week.)

Leroy Feb Standing water Leroy HS 3

Two other tic cases have been reported in girls who attend Corinth High School, north of Albany. Both are members of the school softball team; the first girl collapsed unconscious in May during the first inning of a softball game and began twitching and convulsing, according to the Albany Times-Union; in LeRoy, at least 6 of the first 12 cases were among athletically active girls – four cheerleaders and two members of the soccer team.

And as we have reported, a 35-year-old man in the village of Bath, about 70 miles from LeRoy, was stricken with the same symptoms in September. He lives close to a field that was planted last spring in rye and not harvested; there is a swamp and a levee nearby; and his water comes from a well in his yard. (This is a photo of the swamp.)

Leroy Feb Swamp Tree

In Corinth, the first girl was affected in May; according to a report from the New York State Department of Health released Friday, the first case in LeRoy was also in May, followed by three more cases in weeks that began in September, two cases in October, one case in November, and one case in December. The state report dismissed environmental or infectious factors and embraced the official diagnosis of “conversion disorder,” in which stress or trauma are subconsciously converted into physical symptoms (several cases at once is called “a mass psychogenic event”).

The report was released a day ahead of a community meeting Saturday at the high school, but did little to assuage community concerns.

At the meeting, Superintendent Kim Cox attempted to reassure parents that the school is safe, even as she said more environmental testing would be done on air quality. Some residents, including parents of stricken girls, said the school had not done enough to rule out environmental hazards on the school grounds.

In response to a question about an orange colored substance that has oozed out of the ground and gotten on some students’ shoes and clothing, officials described it as a “harmless” and “nontoxic” rust fungus that grows on grasses.

Our attention to the possibility of ergot poisoning evolved from a discussion with Bryan Tremblay, the man in Bath, about 70 miles away from LeRoy, who was struck in September with a similar affliction. The farm field behind his house, normally planted with corn, was planted in rye last spring, left to lie fallow, and not harvested this fall. His water came from a well in his backyard.

As we walked across the field, Tremblay, a history buff, remarked that some historians believe the women accused in the Salem witch trials may actually have been victims of ergot poisoning. That made us curious and we decided to look deeper. We learned:

--Ergot poisoning, or ergotism, is caused by toxic excretions from a common fungus

--The so-called ergot fungi (any species from the genus claviceps) that cause ergotism grow most commonly on rye and ryegrasses

--Ryegrass is widely used on school athletic fields

--When ergot fungi infect a plant, they produce a growth called a sclerotium that contains spores as well as toxic alkaloid compounds

--When eaten, these toxic alkaloids are known to produce severe neurological symptoms, including twitches, seizures, headaches and trouble walking

--The onset of spring and rainy weather causes the sclerotium to germinate, release its spores and spread the ergot infection to other grasses

--In especially rainy conditions, these sclerotia can be infected by another type of fungus called rust

--One common type of rust known to infect ergot fungi, fusarium, can take on an orange color

--The sclerotium of an ergot fungus, although typically not orange, can appear in many colors as well

So when school officials dismiss the orange substance on the school grounds as a “a form of nontoxic rust fungi,” they may be overlooking an important clue to a potentially toxic exposure. Alternatively, infected ryegrass could be located elsewhere at the school, including the marshy areas we’ve described, or rye could be grown on nearby farm fields.

The law that banned all pesticide use at schools was passed in 2010. It took effect that year for daycare sites, and in May 2011 for schools statewide. As summarized in a Cornell University publication: “Pesticides are substances intended to prevent, destroy, repel or mitigate pests and any substance or mixture of substances intended as a plant growth regulator, defoliant or desiccant. They include insecticides, fungicides, herbicides and plant growth regulators. All are banned by this law for use on grounds at schools …” 

Pesticide logs we obtained from the LeRoy Central School District under a Freedom of Information request show the only pesticides applied at the school last year were ant and wasp sprays from a can, allowed under the new law.

Because school officials have declined to talk to us, permitted no independent testing, and released no results of any tests outside the school building, there is much we don’t know. We don’t know if ryegrass is actually used at the school (it would be unusual if it were not). We don’t know if a harmful fungus actually developed in the grass. We don’t know how students might have been exposed or why only girls appear to be affected. We haven’t found any reports in the medical literature of ergot poisoning from contact with ryegrass at a school.

We also don’t know if there is evidence for the school’s assurance that the orange ooze is “harmless.” The matter is not mentioned in the state report Friday, though it did describe tests of water inside the building and at the junction connecting it to the Monroe County water supply that serves the village (the water is safe, according to the tests). In fact, there is still no evidence that officials have tested anything at all on the school grounds.

At the Saturday meeting, residents pressed for soil testing, but officials said they first wanted to retest air. It could take three weeks to do that and receive results; residents wanted to know why soil testing couldn’t begin now.

As we’ve reported, epic rains occurred in New York state last year, including the wettest spring on record in Buffalo and the second-wettest in Rochester (LeRoy is located between the two). Albany, which is near Corinth, and Binghamton, near Bath, also had massive downpours in 2011 including rainfall from Hurricanes Irene and Lee.

Leroy rainfall Albany Tics and toxins charts

Leroy rainfall rochester Tics and toxins charts

Another LeRoy resident has come forward to say she also developed severe tics in October that were also diagnosed as conversion disorder. The woman, Marge Fitzsimmons, 36, has no connection to the school. Her address puts her home next to a farm field in the Town of LeRoy just outside the village, with a small creek apparently on the other side of the property. The LeRoy school is also just outside the village boundary.

Famed environmental activist Erin Brockovich stirred controversy a week ago when she sent a representative, accompanied by media, to the school to attempt to take soil samples from playing fields. School officials called the event a publicity stunt and “criminal,” had him escorted off school grounds, and then padlocked gates to the playing fields. If you were at the bar last week at Larry’s Steak House in nearby Batavia, the Genesee County seat, you would have heard complaints about Brokovich but also suspicions about why the school district wouldn’t welcome outside help – often from the same person.

Brockovich and others have pointed to a train derailment a few miles from the school in 1970 as a likely cause of the outbreak. The derailment spewed cyanide and a toxic manufacturing chemical called TCE into the ground. Officials acknowledge that gravel from a quarry near the derailment was used as fill at the school but say it is not toxic.

Recent attention has focused on gas wells on the school grounds, several of which have leaked and spread liquid nearby. Other theories include a possible autoimmune reaction to infection, called PANDAS, which can have neurological consequences including tics. (The National Institutes of Health has offered to examine the girls for this, as well as evaluate them for an ongoing study on conversion disorder.) Vaccine concerns have been raised. The state report on Friday said not all the girls had the Gardasil shot to prevent HPV infection. They did not address the issue of flu shots, most of which contain mercury, an established cause of tics.

If a toxin generated from schoolyard grass were the cause, ironically, it would appear to absolve LeRoy as some sort of toxic wastebasket, although the question of why the school was sited where it is might become more pertinent. We learned that in 2000, the district ignored an offer of free land within the village of LeRoy and instead bought land for the new school from the brother and mother of the school board president.

As we reported here, several of the fields sit atop a federally designated FEMA flood hazard area.

Leroy feb red

Former students and townspeople have told us that flooding and settling problems have plagued the school since it opened in 2003, and that ball fields and a soccer field had to be dug up and rebuilt in the past year or so because of water woes.


Dan Olmsted is Editor and Mark Blaxill is Editor at Large of Age of They are co-authors of “The Age of Autism: Mercury, Medicine, and a Man-Made Epidemic,” published in paperback in 2010 by Thomas Dunne Books. Contact: [email protected].




Where there is fungus, there are fungicides. Certain fungicides have been found to appear to cause neurological problems similar to autism, etc.

Isn't it interesting they are only focusing on 2 of the 8 mentioned possible problem makers here? Yes, it's good to know about them, but I am ALSO curious about what the others are and when did they hit the market, too.

Claire Barnett

Another interesting potential! I wonder if schools that rarely if ever used herbicides in the years before the law passed in 2010 saw seasonal outbreaks of neurological issues?

That said, we agree that it is in the children's, the district's, and the state's best interests to conduct comprehensive testing and other investigations to rule in or out various environmental factors not previously considered.


The link mentioned by Donna L. reads: "Ergot is a plant disease caused by Claviceps purpurea, a member of one of my favorite fungal families, the Clavicipitaceae."

Perhaps contacting the author,MAT kinase,could be of use ?


Not that long ago I further contemplated the effects of metabolism and certain chemicals in relation to autism and posted that in an old thread here at AoA. After this Leroy incident surfaced here I decided to review some old information I had read back in 1996. I wish I could keep all the information from the past in mind when I am considering their relationship to areas I am currently researching as I find some of the "new" stuff I connect is actually about the things I had seen as relevant when I originally started looking into this in 96.

Anyway, the link below gives some very good information on chemicals and bodily processes I think many of you may subscribe too and may have possible relevance to the Leroy group, but I don't know. It is good information for understanding what is relevant to many on the spectrum and with other conditions I think.

If you don't want to read it all the section on "Considerations for the Diagnosis of Chemical Sensitivity (169-192)" is very good and speaks to our group I feel. While the sections "Neuropsychiatric" and "Neurobehavioral" are informative I don't think they speak to those with autism and schizophrenia and other deeper brain issues as the chemical and metabolic issues are not the whole problem in these conditions and the brains states produce a mind condition that differs, or is only part of the issue, from the end effects discussed in these sections.

The link to the beginning of the whole set of sections:

Multiple Chemical Sensitivities: Addendum to Biologic Markers in Immunotoxicology (1992)

The most interesting section to me as I greatly apprecxiated it in 96.

Considerations for the Diagnosis of Chemical Sensitivity


Dan, or someone else in contact with these people...
Ask the parents to watch the movie the Corperation. From my understanding, the school is owned by the gas company. The gas company will not let anyone take samples since the evidence may harm shareholders. This is the same reason that vaccine companies can't come clean. They are loyal to their shareholders under federal law. ... So, even if it is hurting people, they can't disclose it... by law. The movie assumes that corperations are people... as they are under the law. Then the movie takes them through the DSM questionaire and basically diagnoses the corperation to be psycopathic. People who want to know the truth about these corperations need to fight with the truth... and the truth is... the corperations can't disclose the truth. Victims need to take this information forward with them.


Also soil,water and fertlizer pollution levels should be included in the follow up environmental assessment.Where is
the nearest garbage dump? Are ther any chemicals stored near by? Is leakage a possibility? It is the lazy solution to call it conversion disorder.They have to do better than that.


Where are the Microbiologist? Send them out to collect samples from the classrooms,bathrooms,fields etc.This is 2012, they should be able to determine the causes: fungus,chemicals,
bacteria, heavy metals,insecticides,boric acid,etc???
This blaiming the victims must stop!What is the common thing all victims did?
This non-sense must stop.This is not the middle ages!
The school needs to do the work/hire the experts and find the aswers!!!


This is such a compelling idea of causality. Does anyone in LeRoy care? Do they even know about this idea? If I was a parent there I'd be demanding that experts evaluate the rye fields immediately!

Heidi N

It appears that things are considered not harmful if most people do not get ill from it. I guess there is some law somewhere that says you can call it safe if only some people get ill due to their weaker constitutions.


I'm a little concerned that Dr. Swedo (according to a very recent Dr. Mechtler interview in The Batavian) consulted with him and fairly quickly ruled out PANS. He keeps stressing that the girls whose parents keep wanting to find answers are the ones who are not getting better. I do know one thing and that's that there seems to be a divergent opinion on just what infections can cause the syndrome besides strep. THe other thing is that many, many neuro's and psychiatrists don't even think about PANS (why is there no sharing and standards of practice on this?) and finally, anyone with any kind of environmentally caused illness, be it environmental toxins or viral/bacterial problems will be given the short shrift. Apparently 2 of the girls have had previous tourettes and I just keep wondering about vaccines in all this.

Donna L.

This article is particularly interesting to me because for years now, in our area (northern IL), we get this orange powder on our lawns every summer, betw. July and August. If you walk through the grass, your feet and legs get covered with orange powder. Years ago, when our subdivision was first developed (built on former farm land), everyone was alarmed by the orange stuff. Neighbors were especially concerned about whether it was safe for small children and pets. We were told it was harmless. This link describes it:

These links say it is most likely 'puccinia graminis', and the second link shows a map of the areas in which it occurs:

But this is interesting - according to this site, puccinia graminis can be toxic to livestock:
"Puccinia graminis -The rust fungi (Uredinales) have occasionally been responsible for reports of poisoning in livestock (Friedberger & Frohner, 1905), and recently Lapcevic et al. (1953) have given an account of how five of 16 horses died suddenly following the feeding of severely-rusted wheat straw infected with Puccinia graminis; the remaining 11 animals had salivation and stomatitis. Attempts at the experimental reproduction of the condition resulted in the death of one of three horses. "

Leads me to wonder if there are any accounts in LeRoy of people's pets showing any sort of neurological disorders recently, since cats and dogs would obviously have more exposure to any toxins on the ground level. Maybe the town veterinarians might have some info?

I also know that the orange stuff covers your lawn mower/lawn tractor...which makes me think some of this substance could still be found (and tested?) on the whatever lawn equipment/mower blades are used to cut the grass on the school property, provided that the equipment wasn't cleaned before winter.

Just a few thoughts - you guys have probably already looked into all this, but just thought I'd throw it out there.


It is truly confounding why the school board, presented with a panoply of theories of possible causes of harm to students, chooses to take this oppositional approach. They must be terrified of lawsuits. Why else reject the offers of outside help to test the soil and water around the playing fields? Is there nothing in NY Tort law that would compel them to perform the testing demanded by parents of sick children? The children are public invitees on the land and the district has a legal obligation to ensure the school and its grounds are free of hazards.

Theresa 66

This is probably not mold sickness, But has anyone read "Mold
Warriors" I think by R. Shoemaker. It has a concept that
a certain percent of population can't handle mold spore toxins.
I think the medication was Questran ? or cholestrymine.
This group has mental/neuro symptoms sometimes. I haven't
read in years, but worth checking into.


Our Local weather report - gives news of other things besides just the weather. When spore and mold counts are high they give them, and when pollen is high they give that report too.

I just thought there was someone attached to government/ Univeristy /weather what--ever that took measurements of the air every day???? I never really thought about who collects this information, who pays them, where and how those reports are collected?


What seems most interesting as this all unfolds is the "why" behind blaming the victims for being "somehow" pysychologically affected by one another. It would be difficult to look at that swampy mess of terrain and not think of a thousand "yuck possibilities". Some slightly disturbing, dirty well water, overflowing septic systems, others more exotic, as in the "land of jello", one could consider prions.

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