Lisa Goes, Autism Mom, Writes a Letter to Santa
Age of Autism Contest: When Santa Got Sick Nook, Kindle, iTunes Download FREE For Five Readers!

BBC Trustees Stand By Groundless Insinuations Against Andrew Wakefield in Radio 4 'Science Betrayed ' Programme

BBCBy John Stone

The decision of the BBC's Editorial Standards Committee - whose six members are also Corporation trustees - fails to take account of emerging facts, and hides behind Brian Deer's flawed and logically untenable account of events. We publish UK Editor John Stone's final submission to the committee.

I am responding to the document from Part 4... It is important to note that Mr Deer’s claims have unravelled very substantially in the past 5 weeks as the result of a report on Nature News, and further correspondence in BMJ Rapid Responses including statements made by the BBC’s expert advisor on this complaint, Prof Ingvar Bjarnason, by BMJ editor Fiona Godlee, by Brian Deer himself and by Dr Amar P Dhillon, the senior histopathologist co-author of the Lancet paper. These events demonstrate beyond reasonable doubt the original recklessness and unfairness of the programme in March.

Point 1

I note that progress with the University College London Inquiry stalled after the programme, a source of frustration to the editor of the BMJ at least, who complained to the House of Commons Science and Technology Committee [1].

The ESC’s attitude to Conflict of Interest is dangerously whimsical: it leaves the BBC free to waive concern about people it likes and crucify people it does not. Unless they decide on objective, citable consistent criteria they will make arbitrary decisions. Anything else is touchy-feely, self-referential nonsense.

I also note that the committee failed to take account of evidence I provided that Andrew Wakefield had embarked in the documentable shape of published papers on “a wider study to replicate findings in the Lancet paper” so it is quite hard to know what Prof Pepys was complaining about. Some people want these papers withdrawn, but they are quite certainly there and their existence factually contradicts Prof Pepys’s claim in its present form.

Point 2

I refer to my previous comment in relation to CoI.

Point 3

Once again this is an arbitrary judgement. It is saying that Mr Deer is such a fine person and dedicated journalist that normal ethical constraints do not apply in his case. But it has already been conceded that his unusual arrangement with the GMC was not explained in the programme (which also reflects on the ethics of the GMC). I note that the Committee now cite his current disclosure in BMJ, which also does not explicitly describe the arrangement, but it is also inconsistent on the part of the ESC because it is argued elsewhere in the document that what may have been said in the BMJ is no direct concern of the BBC. Indeed, it is evidently the BBC’s choice not to disclose this embarrassing matter. There is, nevertheless, a serious inconsistency running throughout the response that one minute the BBC is leaning on BMJ, the next saying that programmes claims stand on their own (though they plainly don’t).

Point 4

A discussion is obviously not fair in the context of a programme which persistently gives more weight to one person than another (and by the way fails to get to the bottom of what is being discussed). I note the ESC’s concluding remarks:

“The committee said that it was clear that it was the reliance of Mr Wakefield (Dr??) on the red books as of evidence of “the child’s prior normality” which Mr Deer was criticising. Accordingly, the Committee did not uphold the complaint on this point.”

This is both a false alternative and an historically unfounded insinuation: as well as the red books Dr Wakefield was reliant on GP correspondence, the medical histories taken by Prof Walker-Smith, and the parent consultations with the neurologist Dr Harvey and the psychiatrist Dr Berelowitz. While this may be Mr Deer’s opinion it shows no respect for factual accuracy. It is not correct and it is not fair comment.

Point 5

I quote:

“The Committee noted for the most part, allegations made in the programme had been challenged in the course of the GMC tribunal”.

This is a false statement. These allegations first saw the light of day in a Sunday Times article by Mr Deer in February 2009, and were repeated in BMJ in January 2011. The defence at the GMC hearing which began in 2007 never had to address these allegations.

“The committee note that the tribunal has the same standing as a court of law: and its findings on fact were entitled to be relied upon by the producers of the programme.”

However, all the findings that were remotely relevant to the programme are still under appeal by Prof Walker-Smith, and this was not said, and the absence of any warning regarding this is surely a serious lapse of procedure on the part of the Corporation.

With regard to the evidence of Susan Davies, it is evident that what she is saying is the results of the biopsies were both consistent with significant inflammation and with normality. I note that after the recent intervention of Dr David Lewis as reported in Nature News Prof Bjarnason, Dr Godlee and even Mr Deer had to retreat substantially [1]:

“But he (Bjarnason) says that the forms don't clearly support charges that Wakefield deliberately misinterpreted the records. "The data are subjective. It's different to say it's deliberate falsification," he says.

“Deer notes that he never accused Wakefield of fraud over his interpretation of pathology records…

“Fiona Godlee, the editor of the BMJ, says that the journal's conclusion of fraud was not based on the pathology but on a number of discrepancies between the children's records and the claims in the Lancet paper…”

Although Godlee had previously stated under pressure from Age of Autism readers in February [3]:

“The case we presented against Andrew Wakefield that the 1998 Lancet paper was intended to mislead was not critically reliant on GP records”

I note that Prof Bjarnason’s admission came after new evidence and after his advice on this complaint, and suggests that he had been jumping the gun before.

Further to this Dr Dhillon, the senior pathologist in the paper has also now made a lengthy statement which gives the clinical context in which the interpretation of the biopsy results were modified and which gives the lie to the suggestion that Wakefield was acting on his own and/or fabricating something [4]:

The reappearance (BMJ Nov 2011 online: ) of some of my histology grading sheets for the Lancet 1998 study (Wakefield AJ et al. Ileal lymphoid nodular hyperplasia, non-specific colitis and pervasive developmental disorder in children. Lancet 1998;351:637-41) is interesting. I have not seen the grading sheets since 1997-98 when I gave them to Andy Wakefield. Following the interest shown in the grading sheets in the November 12 2011 BMJ Feature “Pathology reports solve “new bowel disease” riddle” (BMJ 2011;343:bmj.d6823), accompanying articles and editorial it is evident that there are a number of misunderstandings. Many of these are a result of a lack of understanding of the essential difference between the systematic documentation of specific microscopical features in a grading sheet by a “blinded” (ie in the absence of any clinical, or other information) pathologist on the one hand; and on the other hand concluding an overall clinicopathological diagnosis by integration of clinical information with diverse lines of investigation (including information in the grading sheet). The difference between the two activities should be understood better. The online grading sheets represent an incomplete record of my observations of the slides of gut mucosal biopsies from patients who were included in the Lancet 1998 study, and there were “normal control” biopsies as well; however:

 -Of those grading sheets attributed to me not all are mine (grading sheets on p38-47 and p55-64 inclusive of the BMJ Nov 2011 online document belong to someone else: NB the handwriting is different to mine)

 -The boxes with assigned patient “case numbers” on the grading sheets have been put onto the grading sheets by someone else (ie “child 1”, “child 2” etc): this information was not available to me at time either of the slide review or Lancet 1998 publication

 -Neither the clinical details per case, nor the original diagnostic histopathology reports were available to me at the time of my review of slides

 -At the time of my review I had been told that slides of study cases were mixed with “normal” controls: which slides were of study cases and which were controls was unknown to me. My research review of the slides in 1998 has important differences with the routine diagnostic histopathology process:

 -Routine diagnostic histopathology is done with knowledge of individual patient’s clinical details as far as they are available at the time of diagnostic reporting, and so the rendering of a diagnostic histopathological opinion in this situation is usual and appropriate (in direct contrast to the situation that pertains in a blinded research review)

 -Then there is a joint review by clinicians and pathologists to evaluate the significance of the microscopic observations in the light of additional clinical, endoscopic, radiologic, and laboratory data that has been obtained after the “diagnostic” biopsy has been reported

 -It is not unusual for the clinical significance of microscopic observations to be reinterpreted and altered by this process, and it could be that the histological diagnostic interpretation subsequently has to be corrected. Thus the purpose of my grading sheet observations in 1998 was not, could not have been, nor was it intended to conclude the final diagnostic assignment of colitis (which has to be made in the light of full clinical/endoscopic/radiologic/ laboratory data; and response to treatment)

 -Therefore on the grading sheets “nonspecific” means: “this microscopical appearance doesn’t remind me of any particular disease entity”, and this is why in none of my grading sheet observations have I stated “colitis”. Bowel disease is not diagnosed by gut mucosal histopathology in isolation:

 -I am of the opinion that the histological interpretation should never (or not very often) replace clinical judgement

 -“A final diagnosis can only be made with the full clinical information and a biopsy specimen should be reported as diagnostic only if full supportive clinical information is available.” (Jenkins D et al. Guidelines for the initial biopsy diagnosis of suspected chronic idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease. The British Society of Gastroenterology Initiative. J Clin Pathol 50,93-105;1997). In 1998 there was no paediatric gastrointestinal pathology literature to refer to for guidance regarding ileal and colonic mucosal biopsy microscopical appearances and their interpretation or significance in autistic children. In 1998 the series of cases in the Lancet paper was unusual, if not unique, and it was one of the aims of the study to explore the significance or otherwise of the subtle histological changes in autistic children with gastrointestinal symptoms. Prejudgment of the significance or otherwise of the histological changes in isolation in the 1998 study cases would have been inappropriate previously, and remains so now.

-Several expert gastrointestinal pathologists and gastroenterologists have commented on the grading sheets (BMJ Nov 12 2011) and they have stated that the findings cannot be colitis; however:

-It is a mistake to apply uncritically adult gastrointestinal biopsy histopathological thresholds of normality vs abnormality to children

 -The expert gastrointestinal pathologist and gastroenterologist commentators have tried to assess the diagnostic implications of data represented in histopathological grading sheets alone

 -This is a fundamental mistake: the significance of the histopathological component of any diagnostic equation depends on consideration of the histopathology within the complete clinical context

 - The current opinions of the experts regarding the significance of the histology grading sheets are subject to retrospective bias by knowledge of events since 1998. At the time of submission of the Lancet 1998 publication I had the clinical, laboratory, endoscopic and histology information presented to me in summary tabular form, and aggregated descriptive text only.

 -My grading sheets were with Andy Wakefield and my general recollection of my impression of my slide review was that some biopsies were a bit inflamed, and others were not: I did not know which case was represented by which set of slides, and which sets of slides were “normal” controls. As far as I recall, the changes were not severe in any of the slides, but it is not unusual for gut mucosal biopsies to show little abnormality even in clinically well defined cases of gastrointestinal disease, particularly in children

 -My clinical colleagues had collated all of the available information, including my microscopical grading sheet observations in the context of their knowledge of each patient’s condition and concluded a final diagnosis of colitis when this was considered by them to be appropriate

 -Thus, at the time of submission of the Lancet 1998 publication, with the limited supplementary information available to me (which I had been prevented deliberately from knowing during the study); and in the context of a comprehensive clinicopathological review by trusted clinical colleagues, the designated diagnosis of colitis seemed to me to be plausible.

Corroborating this is the sworn testimony of Prof Simon Murch at the General Medical Council relating to the meeting which took place to address Davies’s initial concerns [5]

Counsel Q Was there any meeting about the histology section?

Murch A Yes, I recall a meeting. I suspect that I may not be alone with that, but I do have a very good recollection of the meeting. I think the reason was initially that Dr Davies had seen the draft of the paper and just wondered whether the description of the histology perhaps oversold it. In other words, was the description in the paper something that was rather more florid than the lesion she remembered and thus my recollection is that she arranged a lunchtime meeting – I believe it was Friday, that is possibly irrelevant – in the manner of our normal histology meeting in the same place, in the histology seminar room, where the various pathologists who had seen the tissues attended at the same time and so this would be from the paper Dr Anthony —

Q I want to run through a list of names and then if I miss out anyone then of course add them in. Let us start off with Dr Davies; was she present at that meeting?

 A She was indeed.

Q Professor Walker-Smith?

 A Yes.

Q Dr Thomson?

 A Yes.

Q Obviously yourself.

 A Yes.

Q Dr Andrew Anthony?

 A Yes.

Q Dr Dhillon?

 A Yes.

Q Dr Heuschkel?

 A I believe that Dr Heuschkel was present, yes. I am less certain about that, but that is my recollection from that meeting.

Q Dr Casson?

 A I believe so, yes.

Q Dr Malik?

 A I also believe so, yes.

Q Dr Wakefield?

 A Yes.

Q Are there any others you remember being present at that meeting?

 A I think Dr Alan Phillips may have been there as well but I cannot recall with certainty.

Q Were the original histology slides that had gone to Dr Davies’ lab looked at at that meeting?

 A They were.

Q What was the outcome of that meeting about the description of the histology?

A That all the pathologists present when the slides were reviewed case by case agreed that the wording in the paper – we had a table of the histological findings, which I believe will be as seen in the paper here – they all agreed that the wording was reasonable. So I think that Dr Davies was then satisfied that the paper could go forward for publication without change in the histological description.”

Against this background it would be very unwise for the ESC to give precedence to Dr Davies’s initial impression or to assume that they know what is in the GMC transcript on the basis of Mr Deer’s somewhat selective account. Was anyone told by Mr Deer of Dr Davies’s Friday meeting in which between 9 and 11 doctors present came to a concensus about the paper’s histological findings in the GMC transcript?  I note that Prof Murch was re-instated by the GMC and has not been accused of dishonesty. And I note the continued silence of Prof Bjarnason after Dr Dhillon’s intervention, in which he explicitly challenged his critics over interpreting grading sheets in the absence of the other clinical data, of using the same criteria for grading in the case of children as for adults.

It is clear that programme gave a false and misleading impression about the significance of the pathology results. The point that Dr Davies initial readings did not detect significant findings is in no way anomalous in relation to clinical practice or the historical circumstances. This is taking a random detail out of context and making a meal of it to give a false impression. Dr Davies (who unlike Prof Bjarnason was there) pronounced herself satisfied and it was a group of 9 or possibly 11  experts who agreed the text of paper on this matter, including herself. The BBC cannot afford to indulge in unfounded innuendo over this matter.

The Committee noted that the majority of allegations made in the programme have been found proven by the GMC tribunal and that the only other specific allegations in the programme are made by Brian Deer, sourced to Brian Deer and clarified in the script where necessary as allegations rather than proven fact.

It is hard to corroborate this claim in detail, but once again the programme failed to state that the matters relevant to the programme’s claim were still under appeal by Prof Walker-Smith and this surely must be an error of procedure.

The Committee noted that subsequent verification by the editorial adviser of relevant sections of the GMC tribunal transcripts supports the programme's confidence in their sources.

This is just citing an unidentified source as corroboration of unspecified claims. It is impossible either to dispute or sustain.

Point 6

I have commented before on the BBC’s surreal concept of fairness: inviting someone to contribute to a programme in which they have been told effectively that their character will be assassinated does not make it fair.

The Committee noted that the opening of the programme, about which the complainant is particularly concerned, listed only those charges which had already been found proven by the GMC.

This is a misrepresentation. I do not believe that I have ever commented on that passage, I objected to the hyperbolae afterwards, where I pointing out that nothing in this case compared as a modern medical scandal with Harold Shipman or Vioxx (and I might have added Thalidomide, contaminated blood for haemophiliacs, Paroxetene, the cover up of the Camelford water disaster or Joseph Mengele - who is actually still in living memory). It was patently a preposterous claim that it was the worst medical scandal in living memory, and unfair comment.

The committee also failed to take account of the extent to which the association between autism and gut pathology is by now widely – if not universally - accepted in mainstream medicine, for which I provided good evidence, including a very recent US National Institutes of Health paper which gave honourable citations to both Wakefield and Prof Walker-Smith. For this reason the strictures of Prof Jones which the committee invoked, and which I also do not agree with, were still not relevant at least in respect to gut pathology in autistic people. I find it troubling that my documentary evidence on this matter was not only disregarded but also not even reported, thus giving an entirely false impression of mainstream science in this field.


[2] Eugenie Samuel Reich, ‘Fresh dispute about MMR ‘fraud’, Nature News

[3] Fiona Godlee,’BMJ response to emails from readers of Age of Autism, 7 February 2011

[4] Amar P Dhillon, ‘Re: Pathology reports solve “new bowel disease” riddle’, 17 November 2011

[5] GMC hearing against  – Day 113 Friday 16 January 2008 Pages 43/44 .

John Stone is UK Editor for Age of Autism.



To all parents of vaccine injured children.


1. Cancel payment

2. Ignore ALL letters & do not communicate either verbally or in writing. DO NOT SIGN ANYTHING.

3. In the unlikely event that an inspector should call, refuse to answer any questions & any request to enter your property. They have no rights of access.

4. Legally, a licence is only required to watch LIVE TV programs. You DO NOT need a licence to watch DVD's, play video games, watch internet videos etc

5. You will not be summoned to court or fined UNLESS you SIGN anything or they are able to prove that you watch LIVE TV.

I haven't paid for 18 months now because I refuse to pay for propaganda that is killing, maiming & deceiving millions of people.

If you follow these instructions, they can't touch you.

That's the best way to make your point.

The BBC is lying about man made global warming, wars of aggression in Iraq, Afghanistan, Libya, Syria, the false flag attacks of 9/11 & 7/7, & the iatrogenic causes of autism, auto immune diseases & cancer through vaccination.

It's not going to change or recant. It's purpose isn't to report the news. It's purpose is to manufacture propaganda on behalf of global financial, corporate & political agendas.

Angus Files

Yep! but the message to PHARMA is,"were here for the long haul" I still have another 30 years to go at least .My kids would jump from the 6th floor rather than have a vaccine....


Angus ...

Shiny Happy Person

@Barry: "...its never really been about science..."

Amen. IMHO it's always been a clash of ideologies: (1) those who believe that "public health" is a complex, multifaceted, holistic discussion, a collective, and most importantly, a natural result of the total commitment to, and mutual respect for, the health and well being of each individual, vs. (2) those who view public health as a collection of metrics, compliance numbers, something that requires the sacrifice of a few unfortunate individuals in order to be achieved. Anything else would be too "expensive".

Much of the science may well be beyond my grasp, but as you say, it's never been "science" telling us we that have to break a few eggs. The word "science" however is always used to wipe the broken egg off of the faces (wash the blood off the hands?) of those who preach this kind of fascism.

Hence, I agree with you - 99.999%. It's never been about science, but "science, the excuse" is always available to help wash down the politics...

Mark Struthers

Shame on the BBC! Well done to John for standing up to power, and the abuse of it, at the BBC. As Christopher Hitchens might have said,

"If you gave the BBC an enema, the whole corporation could be buried in a matchbox."

Angus Files

Leveson seen it and done it before he is lap dog to the Pharma ,...


Same Shit Diffrent Year..

Jenny Allan

Hi John- I think there is definitely a bit of a UK grass roots rebellion against the 'spin' and the 'stretching' of facts to suit the case!! I DO hope so and Yes, I would like to think the BBC trustees are themselves reflecting on how much THEY were influenced by the 'spin and stretch'!!

Anyway, Well done you for doggedly pointing out to the BBC trustees the 'error of their ways'. Sometimes we seem to be banging our heads against a brick wall, but even when we get negative responses, our arguments and logic persist within the records and, like the Murdoch ramifications, will eventually come back to haunt them. The S&T Committee are already running for cover, closely followed by the Higher Education Funding Authority.

Have a great Christmas everyone!!

Angus Files

Dr Kelly nothing in the Leveson "white wash"

Leveson same Geezer done the MMR litigation...

Sorry to all celebs, you might now find out how it feels to be dunked! by the UK Courts ALL in one SLAP!!!By Leveson..


John Stone

Hi Jenny

In the spirit of the term "spin" I would also like to coin the term "stretch" as in "stretching a point". In 2004 we saw the Hutton Inquiry into the death of Dr Kelly "stretch" the truth to find BBC reporter Andrew Gilligan technically guilty of falsehood and Tony Blair technically not guilty of falsehood. Everything had been stretched to suit policy.

Of course, the BBC was already pretty far gone by then but the two senior execs were forced to resign and BBC fell ever further under the influence of Whitehall. And what we see in this document is stretch: everything pulled so out of shape that it is unrecognisable, while bureaucratic decorum is sort of observed, but not without embarrrassment.


Angus Files

Well done John ...when will Cameron and ALL ,the political parties speak up?

ALL ,have had a turn in POWER now in the UK and not made a diffrence...

well done John


Jenny Allan

A couple of 'snippets' from the BBC Trust's lengthy response.

"This appeal raises issues requiring consideration of the guidelines relating to accuracy and impartiality.
The Committee noted that the guideline on accuracy requires that content is well sourced, based on sound evidence, thoroughly tested and presented in clear, precise language. The Committee noted too that output should not distort known facts, present invented material as fact, or otherwise undermine the audience’s trust in the BBC’s content."

Oh Deer!! It seems the BBC regards 'baby books' as clear precise language and Deer's 'interpretation' of their usage and function within the UK health services as 'well sourced' and not 'distorted'.

Prof Pepys, UCL medical director's deal with MMR manufacturers GSK was signed in 2009, NOT 2011 as claimed by the BBC; this was BEFORE The GMC verdicts on Dr Wakefield and his colleagues. In 2010 Pepys's research also received huge funding from the Medical Research Council, funded by UK TAXPAYERS. A great deal for GSK, spared the costs of developing potentially lucrative treatments, but maybe not so good for us UK taxpayers!! This was University College London spin-out Pentraxin Therapeutic Ltd.'s March 2009 tie-up with GlaxoSmithKline PLC around a novel treatment for amyloidosis This should MOST CERTAINLY have been declared on the Science Betrayed programme.

It was very interesting to note the reference to the recent commissioned 'BBC science reporting review' by Professor Steve Jones, a retired genetics expert.

"The Committee noted Professor Jones’ recommendation that when making editorial judgements about impartial there should be no attempt to give equal weight to opinion and evidence."

So THAT'S OK THEN FOLKS!! Prof Jones has decreed that us poor UK taxpaying, licence paying suckers, are going to get 'opinions' such as those of Deer and Godlee, shoved down our throats as 'evidence', whilst the true facts are distorted and suppressed. In the BBC pipeline are GM foods, climate change, no doubt with nuclear power, and all kinds of government and corporate promoting propaganda.

Jones took no submissions from the public when compiling his report, but instead used the 'expert' Science and Media Centre, a pharma sponsored autonamous pressure group led by a female member of the 'Revolutionary Communist Party'. Science qualifications? NONE, just a second rate degree in 'journalism'- a bit like Brian Deer really. I think his degree is in 'philosophy'. It figures!

We should all withhold our licence fees until the BBC is prepared to properly UPHOLD its own constitutional values and ethos.

John Stone

Hi Barry

I do believe it was important not to leave these things unsaid, and a lot more was said which was confidential. In the end I think trustees were more inclined to stand by their advisors than openly shift but I wouldn't be surprised if they are worried about those people. The UK press complaints cmmission awards less than 0.5% of cases to the complainant and used to be proud of the record but it wouldn't surprise me if the BBC is even worse: this was certainly the comment of the editor of the Daily Mail to the Commons media committee in the summer. However, my impression is that the episode put them under great strain and I wonder whether some lessons haven't been learnt.



It appreciate all your hard work John, but I stopped hoping a long time ago, to see the liars in this affair come clean and tell the truth.

They simply can't do that, because it will be the end of them if they do. These people have no conscience, nor do the cowards with the legal and /or the moral responsibility to see that justice is done here .

We live a dark period of human existence, where people think nothing of harming children for money, and an apathetic public chooses to look the other way.... because the TV tells them it's OK to do that.

There's been no betrayal of science here, because its never really been about science. What been betrayed here, against every imaginable human instinct..... are tiny, innocent, defenseless children.

Deborah Nash

Well done John. Regardless of the outcome - it is always worth letting these people know that Dr Wakefield still has massive support around the world and that we will not let them forget it.

Jenny Allan

I too complained to the BBC about this programme in April 2011 and received this terse response. The BBC is an absolute disgrace. It is funded by the UK people via a licence fee and is SUPPOSED To be free from political interference and commercial pressures. The BBC Trust members are FAILING in their duty to the British people.

Dear Mrs Allan

Reference CAS-678205-FGR76W

Thanks for contacting us regarding 'Science Betrayed' broadcast on BBC Radio 4 on 24 March. I understand that you feel this programme was inaccurate in that new documents have come to light which suggest that Dr Wakefield was innocent.

While I appreciate your concerns all our programmes are carefully considered in advance to ensure their content is suitable for broadcast, accurate and informative. At the time of broadcast the allegations against Dr Wakefield which led to him being struck off by the General Medical Council were still, technically, correct. We were simply covering the story from this perspective but I’m sorry you found this inappropriate.

We’re guided by the feedback we receive and I can assure you we've registered your complaint on our audience log. This is a daily report of audience feedback that's made available to all BBC staff, including members of the BBC Executive Board, channel controllers and other senior managers. The audience logs are important documents that can help shape decisions about future programming and content.

Thanks for taking the time to contact us.

Kind Regards

Verify your Comment

Previewing your Comment

This is only a preview. Your comment has not yet been posted.

Your comment could not be posted. Error type:
Your comment has been saved. Comments are moderated and will not appear until approved by the author. Post another comment

The letters and numbers you entered did not match the image. Please try again.

As a final step before posting your comment, enter the letters and numbers you see in the image below. This prevents automated programs from posting comments.

Having trouble reading this image? View an alternate.


Post a comment

Comments are moderated, and will not appear until the author has approved them.

Your Information

(Name and email address are required. Email address will not be displayed with the comment.)