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AofA Science Summary: Redox regulation of the influenza hemagglutinin maturation process: a new cell-mediated strategy for anti-influenzatherapy.

Science post imageAntioxid Redox Signal. 2011 Aug 1;15(3):593-606. Epub 2011 May 19.

Redox regulation of the influenza hemagglutinin maturation process: a new cell-mediated strategy for anti-influenzatherapy.

Sgarbanti RNencioni LAmatore DColuccio PFraternale ASale PMammola CLCarpino GGaudio EMagnani MCiriolo MRGaraci EPalamara AT.


San Raffaele Pisana Scientific Institute for Research, Hospitalization, and Health Care, Rome, Italy.

Abstract AIM:

The aim of this study was to determine whether GSH-C4, a hydrophobic glutathione derivative, affects in vitro and in vivo influenza virus infection by interfering with redox-sensitive intracellular pathways involved in the maturation of viral hemagglutinin (HA).


GSH-C4 strongly inhibited influenza A virus replication in cultured cells and in lethally infected mice, where it also reduced lung damage and mortality. In cell-culture studies, GSH-C4 arrested viral HA folding; the disulfide-rich glycoprotein remained in the endoplasmic reticulum as a reduced monomer instead of undergoing oligomerization and cell plasma-membrane insertion. HA maturation depends on the host-cell oxidoreductase, protein disulfide isomerase (PDI), whose activity in infected cells is probably facilitated by virus-induced glutathione depletion. By correcting this deficit, GSH-C4 increased levels of reduced PDI and inhibited essential disulfide bond formation in HA. Host-cell glycoprotein expression in uninfected cells was unaffected by glutathione, which thus appears to act exclusively on glutathione-depleted cells.


All currently approved anti-influenza drugs target essential viral structures, and their efficacy is limited by toxicity and by the almost inevitable selection of drug-resistant viral mutants. GSH-C4 inhibits influenza virus replication by modulating redox-sensitive pathways in infected cells, without producing toxicity in uninfected cells or animals. Novel anti-influenza drugs that target intracellular pathways essential for viral replication ("cell-based approach") offer two important potential advantages: they are more difficult for the virus to adapt to and their efficacy should not be dependent on virus type, strain, or antigenic properties.


Redox-sensitive host-cell pathways exploited for viral replication are promising targets for effective anti-influenza strategies.




Thanks Cassandra;
I am such a fool, I thought it was another something they were going to hook onto a virus and inject!


Stops the refolding of proteins in viruses?

There are a lot of things they mention that I am half way familiar with in the human metabolism that this could affect too.

But since they now use the general population as human guinea pigs when it comes to vaccines--- The majority of human beings are still eager and faithful to the cause: I am sure they will work it all out and in the end the survivers will live in a world disease free.

Well maybe, Humans give their intellect too much credit when they aer in fact very at seeing future consequences - example the unstinkable Titanic,


I love this! Good old vitamin C, the oldest and safest remedy against the cold and flu generates GSH.
Science finally cathes up.

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