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Best of AoA: Age of Autism Awards 2008 Galileo Award: Dr. Andrew Wakefield

Galileo We first ran this post on 12/31/08.

From the Roman to the Wakefield Inquisition

By Mark Blaxill

As the year draws to a close, all of us at the Age of Autism are very pleased to honor Dr. Andrew Wakefield. As we’ve reported here many times during the past year, Dr. Wakefield has been the subject of a remarkable and unprecedented campaign to discredit his work and character, most notably in a show trial that is still underway in London, in hearings of the General Medical Council. In the face of extraordinary attempts to silence him, Wakefield has stood up to these attacks with grace and determination and has continued his research and clinical work on behalf of children and families suffering from autism. That makes him our first Age of Autism Galileo Award recipient.

Like many of our awards this year, this wasn’t a difficult decision. In fact, this may be one of those unusual cases where the recipient of an award in some ways outshines its namesake. To understand why that might be so, you need to understand a bit more about why we chose to name the award after the Italian scientist Galileo, what he represents to the history of science and how his experience compares with Wakefield’s.

Galileo Galilei was born in Pisa, Italy in 1564. And while he was a physicist and mathematician of some note, Galileo was as much a practical mechanic as he was a grand theorist; indeed it was his tinkering with convex and concave lenses that gave him the tools to leave his lasting mark on the world. As a skilled inventor of early working telescopes, he did not design the world’s first telescope, but he was the first to make them powerful enough for scientific use. In fact, the word telescope (derived from the Greek roots skopein, “to see”, and tele for “far”) was coined in 1611 to describe one of Galileo’s first instruments. For the accomplishments that flowed from his pioneering work, he has been described by many as The Father of Modern Physics; Albert Einstein even went so far as to name him The Father of Modern Science.

But Galileo is celebrated today not as much for his engineering talent as for the suffering he endured in support of an unpopular scientific theory. Because it was Galileo’s work with telescopes in the early 17th century that lent critical support to the theory of heliocentrism, the idea that the earth revolved around the sun and not the other way around. As with his telescope technology, Galileo was not the first to propose the heliocentric theory: that distinction belongs to Nicolai Copernicus. Yet Copernicus, a Polish mathematician, was well aware of the personal risk of disseminating his ideas and delayed their publication for many years. Copernicus’ major work, De revolutionibus orbium coelestium, was published only shortly before his death at age 70 in 1543.

Galileo, by contrast, was an aggressive advocate for the truth as he saw it. He used his telescope to provide clear visual evidence that the sun occupied the center of the solar system. He then published his evidence fearlessly in the prime of his life, starting while in his 40s. And although for a while he obtained the approval of the Vatican to publish some of his work, he was eventually forced to spend most his later life defending himself and his findings. For as the significance of his observations for the prevailing Catholic orthodoxy became increasingly clear, Galileo was derided as a heretic, denounced publicly and finally given an ultimatum: renounce your theory or else. In 1633, he was put on trial by the "Supreme Sacred Congregation of the Universal Inquisition", known today as the Roman Inquisition, and convicted of heresy. Barely escaping prison, Galileo spent the rest of his life under house arrest, where he died nearly ten years later.

The many parallels between the Roman Inquisition and the Wakefield Inquisition are uncanny. Like Galileo, Wakefield came to autism both as a practical man and a scientist; his initial involvement in autism was simply in response to a group of parents who approached him as a specialist in pediatric gastroenterology. They told him, “Our children are not defective, they are sick” and Wakefield listened. Also like Galileo, Wakefield didn’t originate the idea that vaccines might play a role in autism, but has become the most prominent developer of the idea. As Galileo’s telescopes allowed him to discover the moons of Jupiter, so did Wakefield’s use of new ways of seeing, in this case an endoscope to see into a child’s intestines, allow him to discover a distinctive gut pathology in autism. He named what he saw autistic enterocolitis, and it was a finding that quite literally turned the brain-centric view of autism upside down. But this was no ordinary finding, for Wakefield’s specific challenge to the orthodox view of autism science made him a target for the medical establishment. He published his first major work in the prestigious journal The Lancet, where the editor Richard Horton had full awareness of its controversial potential. But when the controversy turned too hot to handle, Horton lost his nerve and in a perfidious betrayal that history should remember (see John Stone’s wonderful essay on Horton (HERE)), Horton turned on Wakefield.

Thanks to Horton’s perfidy, and again like Galileo, Wakefield now finds himself on trial for his license to practice medicine in front of the General Medical Council (GMC). And although the GMC might defend the validity of its allegations, it is plain to all who have followed the case closely that the trumped up charges hold little merit. Still, the outcome of the proceedings lies in considerable doubt, for Wakefield has not been subjected to these months of review on the basis of any actual medical misconduct (not surprisingly, no parent with whom he worked supports the GMC’s case). Quite clearly, and again like Galileo in the face of the Roman Inquisition, the offense for which Wakefield is really on trial is heresy. And whenever an Inquisition has begun to confront the conflicts between religious orthodoxy and inconvenient evidence, one can never predict how the High Inquisitors will render their judgment. The only thing we can predict is that a process like the Wakefield Inquisition is always more concerned with appearances than justice.

Wakefield’s heresy comes at a particularly difficult time for the medical profession that has placed him on trial. The twin pillars of its quest for the causes of human disease, germs and genes, have failed for years to explain the scourge of chronic disease: a scourge that has replaced infectious disease as the main public health problem of the developed world. In the face of a simmering disquiet over what has become an increasingly embarrassing scientific failure, it has become ever more important to the profession’s high priests to distract attention from the crumbling bulwarks of their belief system and take action to defend the tools and targets of those pillars: the germ theory of disease that was medicine’s greatest contribution to human civilization and provided its two principle tools, vaccines and antibiotics; and the genetic model of human disease that has been medicine’s great hope to succeed germ theory and the precious disease targets such as autism that it hopes to explain. Seen in this context, Wakefield’s heresies have been unusually threatening because they operate on both fronts: they compete with the genetic explanations of autism with a causal model that threatens to tarnish the heroic triumphs of germ theory.

So like Galileo’s compelling work in support of heliocentrism, Wakefield’s dual challenge to vaccine development and autism science has evoked a strong response from the highest levels of authority. In Wakefield’s case, his prosecutors have determined not only that he must be shown to be wrong, he must also be punished. That means his work on autism (as well as others doing supportive work) must be stopped while he must also be stripped of his credentials as a member of the medical profession. The modern punishment for heresy may not include death, but it can be exile and excommunication.

Casting the treatment of Wakefield as a religious response is the only way to make sense of the behavior of the medical establishment over the last several years. If it were not so serious, its escalating absurdity would begin to resemble farce. One example is the latest defense of the ever-expanding childhood immunization program. Instead of embracing the importance of improving vaccine safety, the program’s defenders have now declared that the temple of the sacred program must never be defiled, and certainly must not be subjected to conventional safety research. So the obvious research project of comparing the total health outcomes in vaccinated vs. unvaccinated individuals has been rejected not merely as too expensive, now it simply must not be done. In the Orwellian logic of the CDC, such studies in humans would be “prospectively unethical” and “retrospectively impossible.”

Let’s be frank here. This is an epistemological obscenity: It’s not just that we don’t know some very basic things about the safety of the sacred program, we also cannot know and should not seek to know. This stance should offend even the most skeptical scientists. Still, the farce continues.

In the meantime, there remains a body of published evidence that must be dealt with. And for this, since the retraction of every published study is well-nigh impossible (some of Wakefield’s less courageous co-authors famously “retracted the interpretation” of the Lancet paper, but they couldn’t retract the evidence) there is only one answer left. Nullify the source of the heresy itself. Practically speaking, when establishment voices can no longer claim the absence of causal evidence, the fallback position must be that there is “no credible evidence” linking vaccines and autism. Removing credibility from the evidence requires that the high priests get personal: they must mount a systematic attack on the personal reputations and integrity of scientists who pursue and publish heretical lines of investigation.

And this is why, decades after Stalin and Mao, we now have the travesty of a 21st century show trial in London, the Wakefield Inquisition. It’s also why the passionate call on a U.K. parents' web-site, Cry Shame, is so deeply correct.

I wouldn’t in any way diminish the importance of Galileo, but in an interesting way, Wakefield’s steadfastness in the face of adversity outshines the man in whose name we honor him. For, although Galileo finally agreed to recant his support for heliocentrism, Wakefield has never buckled under the pressure. Instead he has stuck to his guns and continued to fight for families with autism. Supported by private funding, his research work has continued (stay tuned for some more blockbuster results next year). And along with the terrific medical team at Thoughtful House, courageous doctors like Arthur Krigsman, Bryan Jepson and Doreen Granpeesheh, he also continues his clinical practice.

In the meantime, the heresy trial staggers onward towards its uncertain conclusion; the GMC’s verdict may well come shortly in the New Year. But our judgment at the Age of Autism is clear. Andy Wakefield represents the very best of the scientific tradition. He has persevered in the face of obstacles that would have stopped lesser men in their tracks. He has published continuously and fearlessly. He has pushed important research projects forward despite countless attempts to declare the work irrelevant, the issues “settled.” He has dealt with opposing evidence with the professional spirit of a scientist while also following the advice of Karl Popper that “he who gives up his theory too easily in the face of apparent refutations will never discover the possibilities inherent in his theory.” Along the way, he has unfailingly represented the issues in autism and the best principles of the scientific method with dignity and restraint. Most important of all, he has refused to be intimidated.

For all this and more, we would like to honor Dr. Andrew Wakefield with our first Galileo Award. And like so many others in our community, I feel proud to call him my friend. Let’s be sure to stand behind him in the uncertain times ahead.

Mark Blaxill is Editor at Large for Age of Autism.



Jill Rivas

Great Article. Thanks for the info. Does anyone know where I can find a blank Award Merit Form to fill out?

Frank for Aidan

I liked Eric the Halfabee's sentence:

"I just wanted to you to know (sic)that there are many people out here who think that you and your ilk, who insist on 'articles of faith' rather than evidence are thank God in the minority."

Funny how he cites God in a sentence proclaimimg faith to be stupid, particularly in light of this article's tenor.

There is no complete understanding until all the evidence is evaluated. Even the evidence you find uncomfortable.

Terri Lewis

AoA--I'm glad you ran this again.

So, Eric the Halfabee, you've seen children "severely brain damaged due to measles encephalitis"?

That can happen for some kids when the measles is introduced through vaccination, too.


Eric the Halfabee -
You are just as wrong about Dr. Wakefield's work as you were wrong in believing that your comment would not be published.

John Stone

Eric the Halfabee

The spread of chronic diseases has nothing to do with people living longer:

"Figures from the Department of Health show the number of Adrenalin injections prescribed for children under six suffering severe allergic reactions rose from 15,100 to 37,235 between 1999 and 2004, an increase of 146%."


I guess your view that Wakefield is dangerous maniac is noted: that is what the professionals will say about if you attempt to investigate the adverse consequences of vaccination.

Eric the Halfabee

'The twin pillars of its quest for the causes of human disease, germs and genes, have failed for years to explain the scourge of chronic disease: a scourge that has replaced infectious disease as the main public health problem of the developed world.'

That's because people now live longer. No other explanation necessary. And if you really think infectious disease has gone away well, just look at the cholera epidemic in Zimbabwe to see what is still out there. I have treated children with diphtheria, seen children die of whooping cough and measles, seen them severely brain damaged due to measles encephailitis.

All my children have been vaccinated. Wakefield is a dangerous maniac who produced cod science and called it fact. All the scientific evidence to date has totally discredited his findings.

I know that as this is a moderated forum there is not a hope in hell of this being published, it's rather against the 'orthodoxy' of the site. But I just wanted to you to know that there are many people out here who think that you and your ilk, who insist on 'articles of faith' rather than evidence are thank God in the minority. And will stay that way.


I thank Dr. Wakefield from the bottom of my heart for going out on a limb for our kids. And I was thrilled a couple months ago to introduce my son to him and see my little Ben shake his hand. Of course, Ben quickly asked Dr. Wakefield "What do you drive?"

Thank you, thank you Andy! And everyone at Thoughtful House.

Becky Estepp

Brilliant comparison Mark! This is an absolutely wonderful essay. Thank you for writing it.
And Andy, I can not fathom where my son would be if it had not been for your work. Because of your research, Eric no longer wakes up screaming at night from reflux. His stomach no longer cramps up all day. Eric is calmer, happier, and healthier. He behaves, which means Eric can learn. You literally have given him a shot at a more typical life. Words can not express the gratitude my family and I have for you.
Happy New Year,

Ben's Dad

It may take some more time for the specifics of scientific award merit to be sorted out, but anyone who finds a controversial avenue of truth and sticks with the pursuit of firmly establishing that truth through science deserves an integrity award of the highest honor, while those who stick with assaulting an idea in the absence of definitive and comprehensive contrary evidence deserve another sort of recognition. Those of you have have stuck with the nitty gritty of the Wakefield saga deserve an award as well for preserving an accurate history.

It was clear from a show of hands amongst attendees at the DAN! conference I attended last spring that gut issues in autism are very common. Perhaps the presence or absence of these issues will help differentiate sub classifications of autism and corresponding appropriate recommended treatments. We can only hope that will happen soon.

So I asked ye-old-trusty Google if Galileo himself had ever been famously wrong and came up with an amusing passage from a PBS NOVA site. Amid all his brilliance, Galileo was flat out wrong on his explanation of tides, and fairly harsh on opposing views, though he passed on writing a best seller along the lines of “The Lunatics False Tides”.

In 1609, the German mathematician Johannes Kepler had written, "The sphere of influence of the attraction which is in the moon extends as far as the Earth, and incites the waters up from the torrid zone...." But because Kepler and other proponents of the moon theory could offer no scientific explanation for such influence, Galileo, who worked strictly on the basis of what he could see with his own eyes, found it impossible to believe; the theory smacked of the occult, he declared. (It wasn't until Sir Isaac Newton published his law of universal gravitation in 1687 that Kepler's "attraction" gained a firm scientific footing. Today, of course, most schoolchildren know that Kepler was right: the moon's gravitational tug gives rise to the tides.)

It is likely that when the questions of autism are all settled, there will be some unlikely heroes on various points of fact. How about some spirited debate with humility in 2009. Let each theory be studied, checked and double checked. When methods improve through technology, lets check old theories again. When parts of a theory fail, lets not discard the parts that do not. Lets ferret out the naysayers who are merely opposing autism research to protect their own meal ticket and expose them.
The answers to autism and its rise may indeed already be known, but probably not by the same people at the same time.


Anthony Cox wrote: "Surely the difference between Galileo and Wakefield is that Galileo experiments can be repeated by others with similar results, while Wakefield's cannot."

Ah, no, not exactly. Galileo didn't get into trouble for his experiments. He got into trouble for making observations (through a telescope) and then developing a theory of the universe based on those observations. Wakefield made observations by looking at the intestinal tract of ill children. He and his co-authors published these observations. These observations have been confirmed by other doctors and scientists. Many children with autism have intestinal tract problems. So, thus far, Wakefield was totally correct. The only thing under debate is the cause of these intestinal problems. Unfortunately, due to the stupidity and malfeasance of the U.K. government, many children with autism are suffering from gut disorders and are being refused treatment. This is horrifying. Any government which would mistreat children is totally untrustworthy, which is one of the reasons many of us suspect that the MMR is, indeed, causing illness, which is being covered up.


Thanks once again, Mark, for your meticulous research and insightful analyses. It is disgraceful that so many simpletons have repeated baseless smears about Dr. Andrew Wakefield. If only they actually knew him, or at least heard from families whose children's health improved after his testing and treatment.

Fate and fools have put Dr. Wakefield on the front line, but behind him are kindred spirits engaged in the same honorable pursuits -- to improve the lives of children with vaccine-induced autism.

To all his detractors, with their deficits of empathy, intellectual curiosity and common sense, I say shame on you. Shame.

Michael B Schachter MD,CNS, FACAM

Hurray for Mark Blaxill and Andy Wakefield!!! This essay should be required reading for every health care provider, scientist and student concerned with the history and philosophy of science, as well as all parents concerned about the welfare of their children. I applaud your excellent analysis and your writing.
Michael B Schachter MD, CNS, FACAM

Joan Campbell

That was a truely magnificient piece of writing there Mark. I feel great in myself after reading such truthful words.

Happy New Year to everybody.


Thank you Mark, for writing such a nice piece on Andy Wakefield. My life forever changed in 1999 when I heard him speak here in IL about autism and the connections to his research on MMR and the gut.

It is 10 years later and his dedication to the truth, to the children, the families, to the integrity of medicine, is heroic.

God bless and may 2009 be the year that brings the truth and ends the lies.


Thank you Dr. Andrew Wakefield. You continue the fight for truth. We greatly admire and appreciate your tireless efforts.
In my opinion, the good guy will win this one.

The Ackerman Family - especially Jeff

Deborah Nash

An honour truly deserved, unlike some in our New year's Civil Honours list!
Keep up your good work Age of Autism and well done Andy.

Kelli Ann Davis

Andy Wakefield is one of the most upstanding individuals I have ever had the pleasure of meeting!

Unlike Galileo, I believe he *WILL* be vindicated and the *TRUTH* will be exposed during his lifetime.

That is my heartfelt prayer.

[PS...and unlike the picture above, Andy Wakefield is *head and shoulders* above Galileo in the *hot* department ;-)


The first comparison that always seems to come to everyone's mind for Dr. Wakefield is Galileo and it's perfect that it's been made official.

When my husband and I sit around wishing for a time machine so that we could go back and make different choices regarding our children's vaccinations (we do this a lot, sadly), one thing we don't wish for is to "unknow" what we've learned through the ordeal of our children's injuries. We would have loved for our children to remain uninjured yet still know about the controversy and the heroic figures who've made so many personal sacrifices in order to come to the aid of children and families. I wish it wasn't only through unthinkable first-hand experience that most of us are introduced to these kinds of inspiring examples and come to witness real heroics in science and on a personal level. In a strange way, the secret to happiness is understanding these things, if not for the tragic price.

We don't have a time machine, but we found the next best thing to be Thoughtful House. Our children are recovering in ways we didn't expect since beginning treatment with Dr. Jepson and staff and we're truly grateful for the existance of this facility and all that went into creating it.

Blessings to Dr. Wakefield and all the pracitioners out there making such a difference.

Dan Olmsted

I can't think of a better way to end the first full year of Age of Autism than with this terrific piece. It's about Andy, but also encapsulates the Bizarro World in which we find ourselves -- the moneychangers are casting those truly faithful to science and medicine out of the temple. Stand by, because this won't last forever.

Another reason Andy and Galileo go together, I believe, is that Andy will be one of the handful remembered by history when this sad saga is finally told. We remember Gulliver, not the Liliputians who tied him down.

I also want to acknowledge Twyla Ramos, a dedicated Age of Autism correspondent, poster and commentator, for suggesting both the award and its first recipient. It was an inspired idea. -- Dan

John Stone

It should, by the way, be pointed out that Anthony Cox is employed by the UK medicines licensing authority on the West Midlands Yellow Card scheme. He is a pharmacologist, and it not quite clear what medical knowledge he has.

Allison Edwards, Cryshame, UK

A brilliant piece. Perhaps the same wake up call will happen in 2009 that has hit the 2008 financial markets of the world through toxic selling. "Falsely predicting the number of lives saved" by vaccines, as opposed to the actual events of the number of "lives" harmed will eventually drown out denials.

It is the harshest of lessons, the effect of greed and corruption. One day Wakefield will be exonerated and his good work recognised. But will those responsible ever be held to account? Unfortunately, no one can redeem the lives of children who died or that live and suffer pain daily and been unable to speak because of autism. It is time for science to move forward with an open view, to put patients first, and end the affected families turmoil. Listen to the parents. Well done for thinking up and applying this award so wisely.

Martin Walker

Dear AOA,

I have just read the long article about AOA's presentation to Andy Wakefield of the Galileo award. It's a good article, full of insight and of course I agree wholeheartedly with Dr Wakefield being given the award.

However, I have to draw you attention (below) to one mistake that embarrasses me personally.

And this is why, decades after Stalin and Mao, we now have the travesty of a 21st century show trial in London, the Wakefield Inquisition. It’s also why Martin Walker’s passionate call on his web-site, Cry Shame, is so deeply correct.

It's a shame that a flattering remark, from my point of view is marred by a mistake about my work and of the CryShame web site. The web site was set up by parents and professionals a couple of years ago, its main objective is to explain the predicaments of parents whose children have been vaccine damaged, particularly by MMR and to support Dr Wakefield at the GMC. Apart from essays and news that go up on this web site, there have been a number of short films made by Alan Golding that can be accessed, and as well as a number of essays, I have written a regular report for the parents, attending the last 108 days of the Fitness to Practice Hearing which is trying Dr Wakefield, Professor Walker-Smith and Professor Simon Murch. My account of the hearing is now around 400 pages long.

I hope that you don't mind me drawing your attention to this and perhaps those couple of lines could be changed. I can take only the smallest part of any responsibility for the CryShame site (www.cryshame.com), while the most must go to parents whose already restricted time is committed to this project. I think as well it might be better to record my reports of the GMC hearing in their reality so that anyone living in the US (or anywhere else) can go to them on the CryShame site and read a complete and detailed record of the ongoing trial.

This trial begins again for a 3 week period on the 12th of January. As well CryShame is organising in March a rally and demonstration in Central London titled 'Open Your Eyes to Autism'. Anyone visiting the CryShame site can also buy a copy of the first Parents Voice book 'Silenced Witnesses', with chapters written by the parents of vaccine damaged children, a second volume of which will be published in March of 2009.

Best Wishes,
Martin J Walker

Editor's note: thanks for pointing out the error Martin. We've made the correction. Since the correction (for stylistic reasons) removed the reference to your work, we'd also like to compliment you for all your hard work and insightful analysis of the Wakefield Affair.

L Land

Dr. Wakefield's results have been repeated by other doctors.

Anthony Cox

Surely the difference between Galileo and Wakefield is that Galileo experiments can be repeated by others with similar results, while Wakefield's cannot.

F. Edward & Maureen Yazbak

A well deserved award for a truly great man.

Good Luck Andy and Best Wishes for 2009

Ed and Maureen Yazbak

John Stone

Well written, Mark. It was particularly important to say this at this time, and it could scarcely have been done with greater erudition or power.


Bill Welsh

Thank you Mark for this intelligent and incisive article. I pray that 2009 will be the year when the truth is finally revealed and Dr Andrew Wakefield recognised for his outstanding contribution to the autism issue.
Bill Welsh
Autism Treatment Trust

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