David Kirby on HuffPo: Keith Olbermann
On Autism One Radio

Vaccine Court To Weigh In On Thursday

Davidkirby By David Kirby


I have confirmed the following information:

Members of the US Justice Department’s Office of Public Affairs have been caught somewhat off guard with the news that the MMR autism rulings would be released on Thursday.

Yesterday, I sent a letter to the Court of Federal Claims, and to the Justice Department, asking why the decisions had not yet been handed down. I wrote:

“It seems very clear that the Court is aware of the content of these decisions, yet there does not seem to be any rationale for withholding the rulings any longer. As a journalist, I believe the public has an inherent right to know the decisions made by the Special Masters in a timely and responsible manner.”

I did not hear back from the court. But within 45 minutes, I got this reply from DOJ:

We have no information in response to any of those questions.  We, too, are awaiting those decisions from the court.
Charles Miller
Office of Public Affairs
U.S. Department of Justice

That was at 2:30PM yesterday. But by 2:30PM today, Public Affairs staff were bracing for a huge workload and a very long day on Thursday, knowing they would be taking press calls from all over the globe. They are grumbling that the Court did not give them more time to prepare.

Interestingly, and in an unusual move, the DOJ staff are also sending around copies of the Sunday Times of London articles by Brian Deer, about Andy Wakefield’s alleged scientific misconduct - in an effort to discredit him and his work prior to the Vaccine Court rulings.

I have no idea what any of this means, but I thought I would report it.


I’m beginning to think I have secret powers.

First, I write to Keith Olbermann - and he runs a correction of sorts the same day on “Countdown.”(HERE)

Then, I write to Vaccine Court to ask what is taking so long for the test case decisions – and now I hear they are coming out tomorrow.

Of course, I am just kidding about the powers. Hundreds of people wrote to Keith about his error. And I am certain that Vaccine Court does not take its cues from David Kirby – just trying for a little levity here.

That’s because tomorrow is a big day.

I am hearing from sources that we will get rulings on all three MMR cases (with a supporting role for thimerosal). The three thimerosal only test cases will be released at a later date.

The rulings will be very long and thorough.

That is all I know.

I wouldn’t bet on anything, but I am not at all confident that there will be a finding of general causation for MMR and autism. I would be willing to predict that there won’t be. On the question of autism causation in any one of the three cases individually, my gut tells me that is a long shot too – but then again, I thought OJ would be convicted of double homicide.

So, what other scenarios are left? It is possible that one (or more) of the three children may receive some sort of compensation for their injuries – with the explicit stipulation that the vaccine caused some type of, say, encephalopathy, but not the diagnosis of autism. If you apply the normal vaccine court standards to the case of Michelle Cedillo, for example, it is difficult, though not impossible to imagine that this sweet and humble family from Arizona would be denied any compensation whatsoever to help pay for the seizure medication and other treatments that their daughter Michelle will need for the rest of her life.

That, in my opinion, would be justice denied. This girl was clearly injured by her MMR vaccine. Whether it caused autism or not is another matter, but she was damaged by that shot and, under the law, she is entitled to compensation.

If that happens, it is a personal victory for the Cedillo family, but certainly not a sweeping success for the vaccine-autism theory (And even an exceedingly unlikely slam dunk in the parents’ favor would do nothing to end the scientific debate - which is how it should be).

Under this scenario, the message will be that vaccines do not and cannot cause autism – either in general terms, or in the cases of these three children. In some very rare cases, vaccination can cause encephalopathy in some children. But we already knew that.

I will leave it to Americans and their media to interpret what it will mean if any of these children are awarded compensation for their maladies in the Vaccine Injury Compensation Program. My guess is that this one will have to be explained very, very carefully.

David Kirby is author of Evidence of Harm, a founding contributor to Huffington Post and a contributor to Age of Autism. His next book, “ANIMAL FACTORY” – about the impact of industrial livestock production on our health and the environment – will be released within the year.


Josh Day

Sometimes I think the same idiot is behind all the "YOUR LOGIC IS FAULTY -- VACCINES ARE SAFE COINCIDENCE COINCIDENCE COINCIDENCE" hit-and-run comments. It's like they're using a boilerplate response, mixing it up here and there with their own logical fallacies -- herd immunity fallacy (it is so because everyone is doing it), it is so because the experts say it's so (every single one of these guys falls back on this humdinger of a fallacy), you don't understand/hate science and logic (ad hominem attack and also a distraction of the issue).

Clearly, insulting and demeaning parents and firing off "You're wrong and dangerous, and by the way your logic sucks!" closers to arguments are the way to win parents over to your point of view and get them to fall back into step. Also it helps your case when you're an M.D. and have to reference your superior authority and expertise at least half a dozen times in the comment. This is really changing the hearts and minds of the thousands of parents who read this site. Really.


All of you, PLEASE Google “Congressional Record – Extension of Remarks May 21st, 2003 – Pages E1027-1030” which is called “Mercury in Medicine Report – Hon. Dan Burton of Indiana in the House of Representatives.” Read it -


“However, the Committee, upon a thorough review of the scientific literature and internal documents from the government and industry, did find evidence that thimerosal did pose a risk.
Thimerosal used as a preservative in vaccines is likely related to the autism epidemic. This epidemic in all probability may have been prevented or curtailed had the FDA not been asleep at the switch regarding the lack of safety data regarding injected thimerosal and the sharp rise of infant exposure to this known neurotoxin. Our public health agencies’ failure to act is indicative of institutional malfeasance for self-protection and misplaced protectionism of the pharmaceutical industry.”

Please remember that Congress already came to its conclusion that there was something mighty wrong here. We can’t be foolish to allow three Special Masters who serve the same government that mandates the vaccinations to close this matter. Ultimately, we will have to bring our cause in front of a jury, within the eyes of the American public where we will have the openness of discovery procedures and fairness. Just recently look how they are trying to modify the Combat Autism Act so as not to allow continued research in vaccinations – much to hide.

The more you research this issue and understand our American governmental history (WMD comes to mind very quickly), it is very oblivious that our government cannot be trusted to tell the truth. It seems that the only way we will probably learn the truth, will be in an actual court of law and not some “dog and pony show” orchestrated by Special Masters who also work for that same government.

Folks, the gloves are off. Get ready for a fight we can’t lose, nor will lose in behalf of our children. “Don’t Stop - Keep Pushing.”

M -
For “A” and so many Others

Kathy Blanco

PEter, why don't we go with the idea, that any infectious organism, accompyanied by a fever, may initiate the trigger? Be that a vaccine or a natural pathogen? I think this is highly likely? For, I have found, that many of these kids have infectious microbes like lyme disease (proven in studies), mycoplasma, and the like, even Herpes viral class families? So what if our kids can't handle them due to their obviosu immune dysfunctions? I think this is the likely scenario? Read www.rollingdigital.com/autism


I'm not giving Peter Syms the last word here. Partly because his post has a punctuation error.

We're not treating "autism," we're treating vaccine injuries. Read through the NVICP cases and note the physical symptoms. Now help us treat THAT.

peter syms

the argument that vaccine's cause autism uses the same logic that water caueses autism. Statistically, some children regress into autism around 1-2 years of age. The same time the vaccine is given. Fact: Every major health organization has studied vaccine's and determined to link to autism. Since thimersol was removed, autism rates have continued to increase. Vaccine- autism linkers deny any evidence and believe their rare case is indicative of a trend. Give up, spend your time finding better TREATMENTS AND CURES.


Well according to the Conway, Homer and Chin-Caplan website we are SCREWED. The special masters have ruled against everyone!!!

Tim Booton

Seems odd that DOJ would be sending around copies of Deere's article unless the DOJ was tipped on the outcome of the trial. In fact, the timing of Deere's article seems mysterious to me. Too many coincedences.


After waiting ever so patiently for the Vaccine Court results, with optimism for the families of children with autism, I am suddenly dreading the decision. I pray for our children, and for justice. Our children are not garbage; they are people who deserve to live their lives to their fullest potential. The scientific and medical evidence is quite clear that our children are being harmed by vaccines. Let's hope the Special Masters do what is right for the children who have been severely harmed.


Interestingly, and in an unusual move, the DOJ staff are also sending around copies of the Sunday Times of London articles by Brian Deer, about Andy Wakefield’s alleged scientific misconduct - in an effort to discredit him and his work prior to the Vaccine Court rulings.
This seems inappropriate for DOJ to be allowed to do...

Diane Farr

I have a dream/fantasy. I would love to picket a hospital entrance so every expectant mother coming in could be warned about the Hepatits B shot. I would pick a city like Atlanta. They have the CDC and CNN. They also have Northside Hospital; where about everyone in Atlanta goes to have their baby. If we get some bad news today; I might just turn mad enough to organize something like this.


Yes, David, you do have special powers and you guide public opinion. It's a power that is seriously lacking nowadays in all walks of life:


not looking good

"Interestingly, and in an unusual move, the DOJ staff are also sending around copies of the Sunday Times of London articles by Brian Deer, about Andy Wakefield’s alleged scientific misconduct - in an effort to discredit him and his work prior to the Vaccine Court rulings. "

Looks to me like they are all chipping the rust off their iron fists in preparation for a preemptive atack. Why else would the DOJ be having their minions get a big dose of Deer propaganda. All the better to get the goons on the same page so they can shatter all resistance At least that's my pessimistic view.


I'd love to be part of a huge protest against the government(s) if an unjust decision comes down....if it ultimately becomes a black Thursday.

How can everyone "F" the gov / find a way to show disapproval? Something to think about...

I'm serious. Ideas?

Kathy Blanco

This is long but pertinent reading.

Known triggers of mitochondrial disease
Mitochondrial diseases can go undetected for many years, and many cases display an episodic course with relatively stable periods punctuated by abrupt degeneration that may coincide with an infection or other stress to mitochondrial function. One study in young children definitively diagnosed with mitochondrial disease found that 60% showed an episodic disease course. In 72% of those cases, deterioration was associated with a naturally acquired infection45. Of possible importance, mitochondria are the major generators of body heat and are therefore extremely active during fever. It is not known whether fever or other aspects of the inflammatory or immune response to a virus or bacteria trigger deterioration after infection. To reduce the risk presented by acquired infections, the workshop panelists strongly encourage vaccinations in the hundreds of children they treat for mitochondrial disease. Among thousands of patients they had collectively seen, very few had deteriorated following vaccination, and in those few cases, it is difficult to determine that other stressors besides the vaccine did not play a role in the neurologic deterioration. In addition to febrile illnesses, other potential precipitating factors noted by the panelists included dehydration, reduced caloric intake, and in some cases, exercise. The exact mechanisms that lead to deterioration after these triggers are not well understood, nor is it known why some individuals recover function after deterioration while others are irreversibly impaired.

A number of medications and environmental agents can also impair mitochondrial function. Some medications act as precipitating factors in genetically susceptible individuals, as in aminoglycoside antibiotic-induced sensorineural hearing loss in carriers of a mutation at mtDNA position 1555. Others can result in acquired mitochondrial impairment, such as the AIDS drug AZT and valproate, an anticonvulsant and mood stabilizer. Additional medications that can affect mitochondria include some chemotherapy drugs and statins. Environmental agents that impair mitochondrial function include natural neurotoxins such as some fungal toxins and chemicals such as MPTP and the insecticide rotenone, both of which cause Parkinson's-like symptoms. Cigarette smoke and alcohol can also damage mitochondria, and some studies suggest they increase the risk of vision loss in individuals carrying the mtDNA mutation that causes Leber Hereditary Optic Neuropathy (LHON).

Mitochondrial diseases and autism: clinical parallels and evidence for a relationship
Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are a diverse group of neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by the appearance by age three of a triad of primary symptoms: reduced social behavior, abnormal language, and restricted or repetitive behaviors. A considerable minority of cases show regression after a seemingly normal early development, and a number of comorbid medical conditions are also variably associated with ASDs including seizures, mental retardation, gastrointestinal complications, and dysmorphic appearance. The workshop panelists discussed reports from the published scientific literature as well as their own experiences with patients in terms of evidence for a relationship between mitochondrial disease and autism.

Workshop panelists who treat children with mitochondrial disease noted that some of these children have autistic features, and some children eventually found to have mitochondrial disease are initially diagnosed with an ASD. In addition, siblings of children with maternally inherited mitochondrial disorders sometimes present with autism. Presumably, they have inherited the same mitochondrial mutation from their mother, but the mutation may be difficult to find. Workshop panelists who mainly see individuals with a primary diagnosis of autism found parallels with clinical observations in mitochondrial disease such as developmental regression, seizures, and gastrointestinal complications. A number of published and anecdotal reports have described laboratory testing and brain imaging findings consistent with mitochondrial dysfunction in some ASD cases. However, few cases have been studied with in-depth analyses of mitochondrial function, and drawing conclusions from the current literature is difficult since tests that are used may be nonspecific on their own or dependent on test conditions and procedures. A carefully designed program of mitochondrial study in autism will be required to move forward.

Additional parallels between ASDs and mitochondrial disease noted by the workshop panelists were in family histories and patterns of inheritance. These included possible maternal inheritance in some ASDs, a similar higher prevalence in males for both ASDs and some mitochondrial diseases, and a high frequency of psychiatric conditions such as depression, delusions and attention deficit disorder in families with mitochondrial disease, including in relatives who seem otherwise unaffected. In a study highlighted in the workshop presentations42, one child in a family with a group of heterogeneous neurological disorders had features of autism while his sister developed signs of Leigh Syndrome. Both children had the same mutation in the mitochondrial transfer RNA for lysine (G8363A), but molecular genetic testing showed that the mutation load in blood and muscle from the child with autism was lower than in the child with Leigh Syndrome, suggesting that relatively mild mitochondrial defects may manifest in autism in the absence of other signs of mitochondrial disease.

Geneticists studying ASDs hypothesize that many cases may result from sporadic, or de novo, mutations or gene copy number variations (deletions and duplications) that are dispersed across the genome. The workshop panelists suggested that such sporadic events may have a high likelihood of affecting mitochondria since genes important for their function are found throughout the genome. Consistent with this possibility, some but not all genetic studies have identified genetic variations associated with autism in the gene SLC25A12, a mitochondrial aspartate/glutamate carrier important for respiratory chain function. In addition, mitochondrial dysfunction has been reported in individuals with a recently described chromosomal abnormality (15q11-q13 inverted duplication) associated with an estimated 3-5% of autism cases35.

Despite these lines of evidence suggesting that mitochondrial dysfunction may contribute to autism, the extent of such a contribution is not known, and a mechanistic relationship has not been explored. Certainly, many children who are extremely disabled by mitochondrial disease have no signs of ASD. The progressive and severe myopathy, neuropathy, blindness, focal neurologic signs, cardiac dysfunction, renal failure, and other clinical features seen in many forms of mitochondrial disease do not occur in ASDs. Whether a low mitochondrial mutation load could contribute to the risk of autism in a subset of persons is currently unknown and quite difficult to rule out. The ASDs themselves represent a complex set of symptoms, likely with many causes, and workshop panelists expressed a range of opinions about what proportion of ASDs might be accounted for by mitochondrial disease. The panelists' discussions also revealed important differences in perspective between researchers and clinicians focused on autism and those focused on mitochondrial disease in terms of the types of cases they see and the clinical features they emphasize. Autism experts on the panel stressed a need for more detailed descriptions of behavioral phenotypes in mitochondrial diseases, while mitochondrial disease experts expressed a need for more thorough clinical and biochemical evaluation in ASDs.

Advancing research on the relationship between mitochondrial disease and autism: needs, priorities and emerging tools
The afternoon sessions of the workshop focused on discussions of how to approach research to better understand the relationship between mitochondrial disease and autism: If a study were designed to look at mitochondrial function in autism, how might the study population be selected? What sorts of tests might be conducted? What challenges exist? What new research tools or resources are needed?

The workshop panelists discussed two general research strategies, either a targeted or an unbiased approach. The former would involve a thorough investigation of a relatively small ASD population selected for characteristics that indicate a greater likelihood of mitochondrial involvement. Such a strategy might involve more in-depth or invasive testing, including, for example, muscle biopsy and brain imaging with MR spectroscopy. One possibility would be to focus on ASD subpopulations with symptoms similar to those reported in mitochondrial diseases. These could include individuals who carry the chromosome 15q inverted duplication or those presenting with multisystem involvement, a regressive phenotype, epilepsy, hypotonia, or global developmental delay. Study populations might also be selected on the basis of family histories or patterns of inheritance suggestive of mitochondrial disease. Because biochemical evidence of mitochondrial dysfunction may only be present when the disease is active, the panelists noted a possible need to time tests around periods of regression or metabolic stress.

The results of a targeted study would be informative about the relationship of mitochondrial disease to autism in the selected study population and would be a reasonable first step. On the other hand, an unbiased approach would instead survey a larger, more diverse population and could inform questions about the extent to which mitochondrial disease contributes to ASDs more broadly. The workshop panelists agreed that establishing an estimate for this extent should be an initial research priority. A recent study in Portugal screened children with autism for elevated blood lactate and estimated that as many as 7.2% may have had an underlying mitochondrial disease36. One possible way to better estimate the extent of mitochondrial dysfunction in ASDs would be to mount a more controlled population-based study with more comprehensive biochemical testing.

Genetic analyses could help identify variations in the sequence or dosage of mitochondrial genes that create or modify susceptibility to autism. A number of large scale genetic studies in ASDs are currently underway, and it will be important to see if they identify associations with genes that affect mitochondrial function. The choice of methodology (genome-wide association, gene dosage, linkage analysis, or full gene sequencing) and whether to take an unbiased or targeted approach for future genetic studies will depend in part on the anticipated magnitude of a genetic influence. Workshop panelists stressed that new techniques are needed for analyzing the combined influence of multiple genetic variations, such as interactions between mtDNA haplotype and pathogenic or disease-modifying mutations. They also recommended studying the potential contribution of epigenetic modifications that affect mitochondrial function.

Due to variations across tissues in mtDNA mutation load and in the expression of mitochondrial impairment, biological specimens to collect and biomarkers to measure must be chosen carefully. The panelists' order of preference for tissue to collect for the highest mtDNA mutation load and detectability was muscle first, followed by uroepithelial cells, then saliva and lastly blood. Urine samples may be particularly promising for a research study: their collection is noninvasive, they would allow for metabolic marker assays, and they would also contain uroepithelial cells as a source of DNA for genetic analysis. Since metabolic screening and assays of mitochondrial enzyme function depend significantly on testing procedures and methods for tissue collection, handling and transport, another challenge for future research would be to improve consistency and standardization for such procedures across laboratories.

Beyond the more general absence of a definitive biomarker for mitochondrial diseases, the workshop panelists noted the lack of a marker in the brain as a challenge for assessing the contribution of mitochondrial disease to ASD. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) can be used for metabolic marker screening, but its collection requires an invasive procedure. Noninvasive brain imaging and MR spectroscopy can be useful for the diagnosis of mitochondrial dysfunction, particularly when combined with other diagnostic testing. In addition to further developing MR spectroscopy methodologies, workshop panelists also suggested that additional imaging approaches be applied to mitochondrial disease research, such as functional connectivity analyses, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), functional MRI. In terms of emerging brain imaging technologies, hyperpolarized carbon-13 imaging will potentially allow direct observation of cellular metabolic processes in vivo, but the panelists agreed it will require significant further development for useful application to mitochondrial disease research.

The panelists emphasized that new research tools will need to be sensitive enough to detect mitochondrial impairments that may be too mild to manifest in a classical mitochondrial disease but that may nevertheless contribute to autism or other conditions. Some approaches under development include analysis of breath metabolites and diffuse optical spectroscopy, which would use specific wavelengths of light to detect abnormalities in mitochondrial enzyme subunits through the skin's surface. In addition to new research tools, other research needs identified by the workshop panelists included better animal models of mitochondrial diseases and infrastructural resources such as well-organized and sufficiently described patient registries.


Richard you said

"As long as the vaccine issue stays in the vaccine court it can be dragged out,delayed and manipulated by pharma and the government DOJ lawyers as it has been for many,many years."

While certainly HHS lawyers have stalled in providing info (via Pharma itself) "our" side has been riding out longer than expected for the discovery process. More research has been done and "we" had asked for more time for this to be brought in as supporting "evidence".

I'm going off the top of my head so numbers may not be correct but the idea is: If after a certain time (48 months I think) the court has not rendered a decision since accepting a claim, then one can choose to opt out and go to civil court.

Most everyone has not done so in the interest of obtaining more info via the discovery process (possibly a contributing factors as to why the HHS/DOJ is still not giving details on the Polings). This is because some may chose not to accept the ruling in the vaccine court and then go apply that info learned in the Vaccine Court discovery process and proceedings to take into a civil trial before a jury.

If one receives a favorable ruling, whether or not to proceed into civil court or accept the governments offer is a matter that you should discuss with your attorney.

If you are interested to know more about this you might trying looking at Jim Moody's presentations at AutismOne (if still available). I think Jim did an excellent job at explaining this matter (certainly better than I).

We have been in since 2001.

I am anxious to get more help for our son and others children but at this point I can be patient hoping that the Special Masters carefully and thoroughly look over all they have been presented.

My faith is in God. I know ultimately God is the one who will judge righteously.


Thanks for mentioning the last person I want to think about tonight: Eric Fombonne. Grrrrrrrrrrrr!!!! >:(

Is there anywhere we can hear / read this decision as it comes down? Live stream or whatever? What time?

Craig Willoughby

This appears to be an attempt at damage control. Now, why would they need damage control if the case was going to go for the vaccines? Hmmm....I wonder.

And, dare I be optimistic when I say that the delay from the special masters and their subsequent rush to give the ruling and surprise the media could mean the the Special Masters are trying to help us out?

I know, I'm being optimistic.....

David, you have a nice juicy Texas steak waiting for you down here whenever you want it. I and my family love you. Thank you so much for your tireless crusade to help our children.


Yowza...if David continues this type of reporting, our kids are going to start wearing "Kaptain Kirby" Underoos. Super powers indeed. God bless you David. No matter how long or difficult this fight becomes, I believe we parents can rest assured that we will not be abandoned as the battle rages on. Your commitment and perseverance are amazing.

Good news or bad news on Thursday, the "good fight" will continue unabated.



Newborn encelopathy is strongly linked to autism:


This study has been praised by none other than Eric Fombonne:

Fombonne praised the study as follows in the same Journal:

Autism and newborn encephalopathy

Eric Fombonne

Badawi and colleagues (p 85) report on a positive association between newborn encephalopathy (NE) in term neonates and the risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The study they conducted has several strengths worth mentioning that include the population-based nature of their sample, the systematic ascertainment of cases of NE in a well-defined population, the selection of a proper control series, and a comprehensive independent assessment of case status at follow-up.

(Published Online January 17 2006)


David Kirby and AoA: Secret powers and kudos to both of you!

Cathy Jameson

Thank you for the information!!!!! You guys are awesome.


Dare I hold my breath?
oooooooo0000000OOOOOOOOOO :-@

Boy, if Hannah Poling had "autism-like symptoms", I can only imagine the DOJ/HHS/CDC spinmeisters' euphemism all-nighter going on right now. I'll bet they're already working the media.


From CNN.com
'Rulings on autism-vaccination connection expected'

Tim Ziegeweid

David.You had no personal stake in this issue that I am aware of but, thanks to you and many other good people, the plight of our children is now reported in the national news. I never saw autism stories make the A section in any major newspapers before "EOH" was published. You have a lot of good karma coming your way and you have earned all of it. Tim


David, you're wrong -- you do have special powers. I think most would agree.

I have one request for the Special Masters: "Go ahead, make my day!". Here's hoping for the best, but as Dan O. suggested, I'll steel myself.


Tell you what, I'm going to go ahead and expect the worst. So many things have been so hugely disappointing. Sorry, but I been stung before by my own optimism. I honestly thought OJ was going to be found guilty back in the day.

But I'm still hoping for the best. :)

I value you all as my autism community so much.


where will the decision be released?


As long as the vaccine issue stays in the vaccine court it can be dragged out,delayed and manipulated by pharma and the government DOJ lawyers as it has been for many,many years. Once a decision is rendered in the VICP control is lost by Pharma and the DOJ and the vaccine injuries claims can then move to a public jury trial where the truth can come out fully.There has never been such an organized and well funded group to come before the VICP.Normally a vaccine injury is an individual case that can be overwhelmed by the system but this group of vaccine injured children is not going to go away quietly especially if the majority is not justly compensated.


How am I going to sleep tonight??

Jenni P

good thoughts and one sleepless night coming up....

Anne Dachel

OMG David...Of course you have secret powers!!

Anne Dachel


Tell me about it!

Kim (phew...)

john p. crouch

wow !!!! cant wait !!


Boy today has been a hopping day and tomorrow will be again.


way to keep people (and they know who they are) honest, David!!!

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