J Autism Dev Disord. 2012 Oct 16. [Epub ahead of print]
Maternal Vitamin D Levels and the Autism Phenotype Among Offspring.
Whitehouse AJ, Holt BJ, Serralha M, Holt PG, Hart PH, Kusel MM.
Telethon Institute for Child Health Research, Centre for Child Health Research, University of Western Australia, 100 Roberts Road, Subiaco, West Perth, WA, 6008, Australia, email@example.com.
We tested whether maternal vitamin D insufficiency during pregnancy is related to the autism phenotype. Serum 25(OH)-vitamin D concentrations of 929 women were measured at 18 weeks' pregnancy. The mothers of the three children with a clinical diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder had 25(OH)-vitamin D concentrations above the population mean. The offspring of 406 women completed the Autism-Spectrum Quotient in early adulthood. Maternal 25(OH)-vitamin D concentrations were unrelated to offspring scores on the majority of scales. However, offspring of mothers with low 25(OH)-vitamin D concentrations (<49 nmol/L) were at increased risk for 'high' scores (≥2SD above mean) on the Attention Switching subscale (odds ratio: 5.46, 95 % confidence interval: 1.29, 23.05). The involvement of maternal vitamin D during pregnancy in autism requires continued investigation.