There is a new review paper in the peer reviewed and fully indexed Journal of Immunotoxicology, 2011; 8(1): 68–79, that looks at much of the evidence for various environmental causes of autism, including vaccines and vaccine ingredients. It is pretty interesting: (See pdf HERE)
Helen Ratajczak, the author, is a mainstream researcher, though there is no official affiliation listed on this review. She has authored or co-authored 41 papers listed on PubMed (HERE): In previous papers she co-authored, she was listed as an employee of Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals, Inc. She also coauthored an FDA paper in 2006: (HERE) and that same year was elected President of the Northeast Chapter of the Society of Toxicology (HERE). She is a serious and respected scientist.
In this review, Dr. Ratajczak discusses the presence of human fetal DNA in MMRII and Varivax vaccines. Here are some excerpts from the Immunotoxicology autism review:
Autism could result from more than one cause, with different manifestations in different individuals that share common symptoms. Documented causes of autism include genetic mutations and/or deletions, viral infections, and encephalitis following vaccination.
ASD INCREASE IS REAL
In general, the autism increase is not considered a result of reclassification. Although autism diagnoses have risen, there are no corresponding decreases in other diagnostic categories. Data from the U.S. Department of Education Office of Special Education Programs, (showed) clear significant increases in the prevalence of autism among younger birth cohorts, especially those born between 1987 and 1992. During those years, autism prevalence per 10,000 rose about 50% every 2 years: 5.3 in 1984, 7.8 in 1986, 11.8 in 1988, and 18.3 in 1990. During that time, there were no changes in prevalence of mental retardation, speech/language impairment, or traumatic brain injury, which suggests that the increase in autism is real.
The new version of the measles, mumps, rubella vaccine (i.e., MMR II) that did not contain Thimerosal was introduced in 1979. By 1983, only the new version was available. Autism in the United States spiked dramatically between 1983 and 1990 from 4–5/10,000 to 1/500. In 1988, two doses of MMR II were recommended to immunize those individuals who did not respond to the first injection. A spike of incidence of autism accompanied the addition of the second dose of MMR II. Also, in 1988, MMR II was used in the United Kingdom, which reported a dramatic increase in prevalence of autism to 1/64 (noted above). Canada, Denmark, and Japan also reported dramatic increases in prevalence of autism. It is important to note that unlike the former MMR, the rubella component of MMR II was propagated in a human cell line derived from embryonic lung tissue (Merck and Co., Inc., 2010).
The MMR II vaccine is contaminated with human DNA from the cell line. This human DNA could be the cause of the spikes in incidence. An additional increased spike in incidence of autism occurred in 1995 when the chicken pox vaccine was grown in human fetal tissue (Merck and Co., Inc., 2001; Breuer, 2003). The current incidence of autism in the United States, noted above, is approximately 1/100.
The human DNA from the vaccine can be randomly inserted into the recipient’s genes by homologous recombination, a process that occurs spontaneously only within a species. Hot spots for DNA insertion are found on the X chromosome in eight autism-associated genes involved in nerve cell synapse formation, central nervous system development, and mitochondrial function (Deisher, 2010). This could provide some explanation of why autism is predominantly a disease of boys. Taken together, these data support the hypothesis that residual human DNA in some vaccines might cause autism.
The incidence and prevalence data indicate the timing of introduction of vaccines and changes in the type and increasing number of vaccines given at one time implicate vaccines as a cause of autism. The current recommended immunization schedule for persons aged 0–6 years in the United States includes six vaccines at 2 months and nine vaccines at 12–15 months -an increase over recommendations 6 years before.
The immune system is particularly sensitive at 2 months of age. Thus, the immune system of an infant is compromised at 2 months. A challenge by so many vaccines while the immune system is compromised might contribute to an onset of autism.
Many parents cite normal development of their children until they receive vaccines at about the age of 18 months. The vaccine organism itself could be a culprit. For example, one hypothesis of the cause of autism is that the pertussis toxin in the DPT vaccine causes a separation of the G-alpha protein from retinoid receptors in genetically at-risk children.
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION
Autism has increased to epidemic proportions. With a prevalence of 1/110 in the United States, 1/64 in the United Kingdom, and similar ratios in many other countries, a very significant threat to future generations is evident. Integrating the data presented here, a hypothesis is that autism is the result of genetic defects, with the contributory effect of advancing age of the parents, and/or inflammation of the brain. The inflammation could be caused by a wide variety of environmental toxicants, infections, and co-morbidities in individuals genetically prone to the developmental disorder.